Physico-chemical characteristics of Mesua ferrea seed oil and nutritional composition of its seed and leaves
Studies on the physico-chemical characteristics of seed oils of Mesua ferrea collected from different districts of Bangladesh revealed specific gravity (0.9287-09312), refractive index (1.4690-1.4739), solidification point [-4.0-(-4.3)], pour point [-1.0-(-1.3)], cloud point (5.5-6.0), flash point (90-98), fire point (110-116), smoke point (44-47), iodine value (89.17-93.01), saponification value (199.03-206.40), saponification equivalent (271.80-281.86), acid value (9.64-11.87), free fatty acid (4.85-5.96), ester value (188.95-1.95.44), unsaponifiable matter (1.44-1.50), acetyl value (2.70-2.84), peroxide value (3.58-3.64), Reichert-Meissl value (5.852-6.031) and polenske number (0.7891-0.8401). Glyceride classes were estimated to be monoglycerides (1.05-1.35 %), diglycerides (2.12-2.32 %) and triglycerides (87.65-89.50 %) whereas total lipid extracts were fractionated into neutral lipid (89.83-92.18 %), glycolipid (3.65-4.15 %) and phospholipid (1.98-2.68 %). Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids present in the oils were separated and amounted to be (27.40-29.11 %) and (65.85- 68.31 %), respectively, depending upon the areas from where the seeds were collected. GLC analysis of the oil indicated the presence of palmitic acid (10.87%), linoleic acid (13.68%), oleic acid (55.93%) and stearic acid (14.19%) as major fatty acids in the oil. In addition, myristic acid (2.13%) and arachidic acid (2.921%) were also present in minor amount. In biochemical analysis, Mesua ferrea seeds contained total lipid (66.91-70.23 g %), moisture (4.02-5.05 g %), ash (1.46-1.50 g %), total protein (6.99-7.19 g %), water soluble protein (2.98-3.11 g %), starch (5.51-5.85 g %), crude fiber (1.22-1.98 g %), carbohydrate (15.88-18.68 g %) and energy value (700.55-724.15 kcal/100 g), while its leaves contained total lipid (2.32-2.44 g %), moisture (65.12-72.19 g %), ash (2.60-2.71 g %), total protein (4.23-4.85 g %), water soluble protein (1.47-2.01 g %), starch (3.06-3.27 g %), crude fiber (3.12-3.29 g %), carbohydrate (14.82-22.30 g %) and energy value (100.24-128.40 kcal/100 g ). The present investigations demonstrate that the results vary to some extent but not significantly enough with the locations from where samples were collected.
KEY WORDS: Mesua ferrea, Seed oil, Glyceride compositions, Fatty acid compositions, Nutritional composition
Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2004, 18(2), 157-166.