Osteoarthritis: a look at pathophysiology and approach to new treatments: a review
Objective: To review old, current, emerging and potential pathophysiological mechanisms in osteoarthritis and its approach to new treatments. Data sources: Published original research work and reviews from 1995 till early 2008 were searched in English on subjects related to pathogenesis, pathophysiology and potential new approaches to treatment of osteoarthritis. Study design: Articles that emphasized the pathogenesis and pathophysiology and new treatment approaches to the management of osteoarthritis. Data extraction: Online and manual library searches. Data synthesis: Data added up and summarized. Conclusion: Although osteoarthritis is characterized by cartilage degeneration, changes also involve the synovial membrane and the subchondral bone. Evidence suggests the involvement of a number of factors in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis, like the proteases,pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitrous oxide, calcium crystals, leptin, angiogenesis and T cells and in turn using some of these to formulate some of the potential for new treatments for osteoarthritis.