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Madagascar Conservation & Development

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Lois et règlements sur la faune sauvage à Madagascar : Progrès accomplis et besoins du futur

AR Rakotoarivelo, JH Razafimanahaka, S Rabesihanaka, JPG Jones, RKB Jenkins

Abstract


Les lois et règlements déterminant les niveaux de protection des espèces de la faune et de la flore sauvages sont des indicateurs importants de l’importance qu’accorde un pays à la conservation de sa biodiversité. Dans cette revue, nous évaluons la cohérence entre les lois et règlements portant sur la gestion de la faune sauvage à Madagascar, en considérant la législation nationale, les conventions internationales ratifiées et la Liste Rouge de l’UICN pour les confronter aux réalités locales. Suite à nos analyses, nous pouvons conclure que Madagascar dispose d’un cadre juridique adéquat pour réglementer la protection et l’exploitation des animaux sauvages. Cependant, des révisions et mises à jour sont nécessaires, particulièrement en ce qui concerne la liste des espèces dans les différentes catégories et la facilitation de la mise en application de la loi.


In many countries wildlife species are threatened by hunting for meat or collection for the pet trade. Wildlife laws which control where these activities can occur, limit the timing of exploitation, or provide strict protection for some species are therefore an important component of the conservation strategy. However it is important that these wildlife laws reflect the ecology and threat status of the species concerned, and that they are aligned with any relevant international conventions. In this article we discuss the legal framework for exploiting and protecting tetrapod species in Madagascar. We review the 2006 update to wildlife legislation with respect to international treaties, other national legislation and the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We also present a summary of the different categories of hunting (sport, commercial, scientific, and subsistence) and the control of hunting in protected areas. Madagascar has a sound legal framework for the use and protection of wildlife and the classification of species into protected, pest and legally hunted is clear and mostly fits well with the species’ classification according to the IUCN Red List and CITES. A revision of the protected species list managed is needed however to (i) include marine mammals that are protected by fisheries law and the Convention on Migratory Species and to (ii) better reflect the rights of people whose livelihoods rely heavily on the income or protein derived from hunting animals. Renewed effort to communicate and enforce wildlife legislation is needed, especially regarding the illegal hunting and export of protected species. This would also support the ongoing initiative to expand the protected area system and could be integrated into a revised National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan that Madagascar should produce for 2011 - 2020 as part of its commitment to implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/mcd.v6i1.68063
AJOL African Journals Online