Microalbuminuria in Children with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection in Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Microalbuminuria is an early manifestation of HIV associated nephropathy (HIVAN). This study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for microalbuminuria in children with HIV infection in Port Harcourt, Nigeria : Urine specimen of 50 children with HIV infection seen over a 4months period (October 2007- February 2008) was assayed for albumin and creatinine to determine urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR). Microalbuminuria was defined as urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) of greater than 2.5 -25mg/mmol. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated using the Schwartz formula. : There were 28 (56%) males and 22 (44%) females with a male to female ratio of 1.3:1. They aged 1 month to 18 years with a mean age of 4.07 ± 3.61years. Microalbuminuria occurred in 6 (12%) patients; 3 males and 3 females, mean age of 5.5 ± 4.6 years. Five (83.3%) of the patients with microalbuminuria had clinical AIDS and CD4 cell count 0cells/ L. All the patients with microalbuminuria were not receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) at the time of study. One (16.7%) patient had overt HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) with ACR greater than 2.5 mg/mmol, elevated serum creatinine 400μmmo/L, urea of 20mmol/Land aGFRof 69ml/min/1.73m . : The prevalence of microalbuminuria in Nigerian children with HIV infection is high, and it occurs mainly in older children with clinical AIDS who are not on HARRT.
Key words: Microalbuminuria, HIV infection, children. Port Harcourt, Nigeria.