Transmission dynamics of malaria in Nigeria.
AbstractBackground: Two of the problems of malaria parasite vector control in Nigeria are the diversity of Anopheline vectors and large size of the country. Anopheline distribution and transmission dynamics of malaria were therefore compared between four ecotypes in Nigeria during the rainy season. Methods: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used in molecular identification after morphological identification microscopically. Enzyme linked immunorsorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the blood meal analysis and sporozoite detection. Results: Five species were identified out of 16,410 anophelines collected. An. gambiae s.s made up approximately 29.2%-36.6% of the population in each zone. All five species acted as vectors for P. falciparum. An. gambiae s.s had the highest sporozoite rate. The most infected mosquitoes were found in the rain forest. More blood meals were taken from bovids, except the savannah forest, where 73.3%
were on humans and Human Blood index (HBI) was 57.3%. The Entomological inoculation rate (EIR) was a mean of 13.6 ib/p but was highest in the rainforest zone. Conclusions and limitations: This study demonstrates the complex distribution of anophelines and the
considerable variations in the intensity of malaria transmission in Nigeria. We highlight the need to consider diverse epidemiological situations when planning countrywide control programmes.