Community survey of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among primary school pupils in Benin City, Nigeria
Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood neuro-developmental condition with early onset. ADHD affects children worldwide. However, there is a variation in the prevalence across different countries. In Nigeria, there is paucity of information on the prevalence. To provide the relevant information, a cross-sectional study was conducted between February and August 2006 among 1473 public primary school pupils aged 6-12 years selected systematically among pupils in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State. Materials and Methods: All the 1473 pupils were screened with the Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD) Rating Scale to identify children who had ADHD symptoms as contained in the DSM -IV. Such children were compared with randomly selected controls. The academic records of both the groups were also compared. Results: The prevalence of ADHD was 7.6%. The prevalence was higher in boys (9.4%) when compared to girls (5.5%) (P = 0.003). Of the three different subtypes of ADHD, the predominantly inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) was the most prevalent (47.3% of the ADHD population) followed by the combined type (ADHD-C; 31.3%), while the least prevalent was the hyperactive/impulsive subtype (ADHD-HI; 21.4%). There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of ADHD amongst the different age cohorts. Conclusion: The prevalence of ADHD was relatively high when compared to the figures available for other countries. For this reason, there is a need to pay increased attention to this condition in Nigeria. Community screening under the umbrella of the School Health Program could be of assistance.