Effects of high plant cowpeas (Vigna unguculata) and animal (Casein) protein intake on some serum and urinary electrolytes concentration in rats
It has been reported that high dietary protein affects GFR is paucity of both acute and chronic increases in protein consumption elevating GFR. However, there are very few literature on the effect of high protein diet on serum and urinary electrolytes. It is therefore the aim of this study, to determine the effect of the intake of high plant (Cowpeas) and animal (Casein) proteins on serum and urine electrolytes. Eighty Wistar rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly distributed into 2 experimental groups (30 per group) of 40% cowpeas and casein constituted diets and baseline (30). Blood and 24 hours urine samples were collected at baseline, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months intervals. Sodium and potassium concentrations were determined by flame photometry. Bicarbonate concentrations were determined by titration method. Serum and urine creatinine concentrations were measured spectrophotometrically. Fractional excretions of sodium and potassium were calculated.
Results obtained from this study shows that there was a significant increase (P<0.01) in serum sodium concentration in casein fed rats at 1 and 3 months when compared to baseline and cowpeas fed rats. Urinary sodium and potassium concentration of cowpeas and casein fed rats was significantly higher (P<0.01) than that of baseline at the various months. Fractional excretions of sodium and potassium of cowpeas and casein fed rats were significantly higher (P<0.01) than that of baseline at the various months. Serum potassium concentration of cowpeas and casein fed rats were not significantly different with baseline at the various months. Serum bicarbonate values of baseline rats were significantly higher (P<0.01) in rats fed casein diet and cowpeas diets. However, urinary bicarbonate value of the casein fed rat was significantly higher (P<0.01) than that of baseline and cowpeas fed rats. This study has shown that the intake of high casein diet leads to an increase in urinary bicarbonate concentration. However, these diets did not affect serum and urinary sodium and potassium, as these electrolytes were still within the normal reference value for rats.
Keywords: High animal ,plant, protein, kidney, electrolytes