Patterns of cervical cytology in a sub-urban population of Delta State, Nigeria
Aim: This study was aimed at determining the cervical Cytologic patterns in a suburban population of women in Warri Delta State, Nigeria with papanicolaou’s technique.
Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive study which involved an ex-Post-Facto Research design conducted in a suburban Health Center in Warri Delta State, Nigeria. A total number of 81 female volunteers whose age ranged from 20-90 years took part in the exercise. Consent for participant was obtained from each individual before they were enrolled to participate in the study Cytological smears were obtained from patients using conventional techniques. Processed samples were then analyzed by a cytopathologist who assessed the slides using the revised Bethesda system The frequencies obtained were presented in tables and test of association with age were determined with chi-square and Kruska-Wallis tests.
Results: The results revealed that 82% (63) of the cases had no intraepithelial lesion or malignancy. This included 68% (52) of normal observations and 11(14%) of cells with atrophic changes. As shown in the table, 7% (5) samples were not suitable for cytological assessment while 10% (8) of the women were observed to possess low Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (LSIL), with only a single case (1%) of Atypical Squamous Cervical Lesion of Undetermined Significance (ASCUS) recorded. Five (5) cases 7% were documented to be unsuitable for cytological assessment.
The result also showed that the mean age was 43.27 ± 12.16 years (SEM 1.35). The modal age was 48 years. Most cases of normal, LSIL and unsuitable samples occurred within the 31-40 year age group interval, unlike atrophic smears which were observed between 41-50 years. Only a single case of ASCUS was recorded, and it was in a 48 year old female. There was a significant effect of age on the observed patterns (p=0.003<0.001; Kruska –Wallis’s test).
Conclusion: This study has established that majority of the women in the population had normal squamous cervical cytology smears. We have also revealed that low squamous intraepithelial lesion was the most prevalent squamous ecto-cervical lesion. Finally, regular awareness programmes are advocated to facilitate participation in cervical cytology screening to enable early medical intervention and appropriate management.
Keywords: Koliocyte, Cervix, Squamous cell, LSIL, ASCUS