Etiologic agents of lower respiratory tract infection in symptomatic outpatients at a tertiary hospital in Benin City, Nigeria
Aim: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are among the most common infectious diseases and a cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. This study was conducted to determine the etiologic agents of LRTI amongst symptomatic outpatients attending a tertiary health facility in Benin City, Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: A total of 132 patients (non-repetitive) presenting with signs and symptoms of LRTI and attending the outpatient departments (OPD) of University of Benin Teaching Hospital were recruited for this study. Questionnaires were filled for each patient. Sputum specimen was collected in sterile containers and transported immediately to the laboratory. The sputum specimens were then cultured following standard microbiological procedure. Bacterial isolates were identified and susceptibility testing was carried out following standard microbiological techniques.
Results: A total of 49 (37.1%) patients were culture positive. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most prevalent cause of LRTI among males and females in this study with 14 (28.6%). Citrobacter koseri, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia rustigianii, Acinetobacter baumanii, Serratia marcescens and Alkaligenes faecalis showed the least prevalence with 1 (2.0%) each. The most active antibiotics against bacterial isolates were the fluoroquinolones; Ciprofloxacin (82.6%), Ofloxacin (76.1%) and Levofloxacin (80.4%), while the cephalosporins showed poor activity; Cefotaxime (34.8%), Cefuroxime (15.2%) and Cefixime (26.1%) respectively. Gender, age, occupation and area of residence did not have significant effect on LRTI (p > 0.05).
Conclusion: The prevalence of culture positive community-acquired LRTI in this study was 37.1%. We advocate continuous surveillance of respiratory pathogens and their susceptibility profile in order to aid clinical management.