The Profile Of Congenital Malformation Among Newborn Infants In Calabar, Nigeria
Objective: The study pattern of congenital malformations (CM) among newborn infants in Calabar, South-south Nigeria.
Patients and Methods: Medical records of all inborn and out-born neonates who were admitted and treated for CM in University of Calabar teaching Hospital (UCTH) from 1997 to 2006 (10 years) were reviewed. The diagnosis was made clinically in 91.1% of cases; 95.5% was made postnatally and 4.5 % by prenatal ultrasonography.
Results: The prevalence of CM in the institution was 10.8 per 1000 live births during the period. There was a male preponderance. The prevalence of CM was highest in mothers aged 30-34 years and in those of parity 1-2. Malformations of the alimentary canal formed the majority (44.6%) followed by musculoskeletal (19.8%), then the central nervous system (17.8%). Imperforate anus was the dominant malformation in the alimentary tract, myelomeningocoele in the central nervous system, and talipes in the musculoskeletal. Seven babies presented with multiple malformations (7.7%). A case fatality rate of 9.8% was recorded and constituted 1.4% of the total mortality within the period.
Conclusion: The present study can be utilized as a database for further surveys. An indepth analytic research is necessary to determine the possible factors underlying the various types of CM encountered in Calabar and therefore to consider possible preventive measures. Facilities for prenatal and postnatal diagnosis need to be provided.
Keywords: Profile of congenital malformation