Interactive effect of cowpea variety, dose and exposure time on bruchid tolerance to botanical pesticides
Callosobruchus maculatus has for years remained a serious menace in cowpea in Sub-Sahara Africa. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of genotypic cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) varieties, time and dose on C. maculatus exposed to powders of Piper guineense and Eugenia aromatica. Irrespective of duration and botanicals, bruchid reared on KDV showed the highest tolerance to both plant materials; while their counterparts from IAR48V were the most susceptible. Median lethal time (LT50) also varied according to the plant materials; with the highest in KDV reared bruchid [P. guineense: KDV (18.31), IAR48V (9.27), IFBV (13.17); E. aromatica: KDV (76.01), IAR48V (5.59), IFBV (6.49)]. There was a significant impact of cowpea variety (V), exposure time (T) and dose (D) on the tolerance of C. maculatus to both plant materials. The effect of all two-way (VxT, VxD, DxT) and three way interactions (V×T×D) on the tolerance of C. maculatus to both plant materials was also significant. Varietal effect was more pronounced in bruchids exposed to E. aromatica; while exposure time was more pronounced in bruchids exposed to P. guineense.
Key Words: Callosobruchus maculatus, Eugenia aromatica, Piper guineense