African Crop Science Journal <p>The <em>African Crop Science Journal,</em> a quarterly publication, publishes original research papers dealing with all aspects of crop agronomy, production, genetics and breeding, germplasm, crop protection, post harvest systems and utilisation, agro-forestry, crop-animal interactions, information science, environmental science and soil science. It also publishes authoritative reviews on crop science and environmental issues by invitation. It is bilingual, publishing in either English or French. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Other websites related to the journal include: <a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> African Crop Science Society (Uganda) en-US African Crop Science Journal 1021-9730 Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. Seed system and seed quality of Kersting’s groundnut in Benin <p>Swift delivery of quality seeds to farming communities is a fundamental step in mainstreaming the value chain of orphan crops. The objective of this study was to characterise seed production and delivery systems of the orphan Kersting’s groundnut (KG) [Macrotyloma geocarpum (Harms) Maréchal &amp; Baudet] and their influence on seed quality in Benin. A survey was conducted among 305 farmers from the major KG growing areas in Benin. A total of 60 seed samples were collected from different sources (farmer own seed, local markets and agro-dealers) for quality tests. The results showed that seed sources, acquisition modes and perceived quality differed significantly (P&lt;0.01) among gender groups and with farming experience. Majority of farmers (74.93%) perceived seeds acquired from the local markets and seed stored in non-hermetic conditions as of poor quality compared to seeds sourced from their own stock and stored in hermetic conditions. Yet, the seed quality analysis revealed no differences (P&lt;0.05) among the sources and storage methods. Less than 20% of the tested samples met the national quality standards suggesting an important quality constraint in the current system which may justify the reported low yield and crop failure.</p> H.S. Sossou E.E. Agoyi K.M. Kafoutchoni F.A.K. Sodedji S. Agbahoungba Fl.J.B. Quenum R. Sikirou A.E. Assogbadjo B.A. Sinsin Copyright (c) 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 30 s1 1 20 10.4314/acsj.v30is1.1S Influence of socio-demographic factors on the production system of Kersting’s groundnut in Benin <p>Socio-demographic factors are often responsible for the persistent neglect of orphan crops such as Kersting’s groundnut (Macrotyloma geocarpum) in sub-Saharan Africa.The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of socio-demographic factors on production of Kersting’s groundnut (KG), as a basis for informing policy and development efforts in Benin. Data were collected from 305 randomly selected respondents from three major KG growing areas of Benin (Zou, Collines and Plateau). Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, ordered logit models and Kendall’s coefficient of concordance were used to analyse data, rank and prioritise production constraints across socio-demographic clusters. Factors such as land tenure, farm size, farming experience, education level, age and location had significant positive influence on cultivated KG plot size. Similarly, gender, education level and membership to cooperative groups had positive effects on farmer-reported yield. Furthermore, location in the department of Zou had a negative effect on reported yield. Production activities (sowing and harvesting) were significantly influenced by gender and education level. The most significant constraints were damage due to transhumance, lack of quality seed, changing rainfall patterns, production complexity and poor access to credit and land. Strategic actions for boosting KG productivity should include use of improved varieties, sustainable seed system, appropriate crop management practices, and improved access to credit.</p> K.M. Kafoutchoni E.E. Agoyi H.S. Sossou S. Agbahoungba C. Agbangla A.E. Assogbadjo B. Sinsin Copyright (c) 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 30 s1 21 36 10.4314/acsj.v30is1.2S Socio-demographic relationships and management regimes on use of Frundu as fermented famine food in urban Northern Darfur in Sudan <p>Frundu, which in a local term in Darfur for fermented seeds of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), is a traditional Sudanese food often used as a meat substitute during famine times. The objective of this study was to assess the relationships between socio-demographic and management regimes on the use of Frundu as a food security commodity in urban Darfur in Sudan. A survey involving 140 respondents was conducted in El-Fashir city markets, where Frundu is a popular commodity in Darfur markets. A semi-structured questionnaire and Chi square analysis were used. It was found that the period of fermentation of Frundu ranged from 3 to 7 days, depending on seasonal temperature. The storage period of Frundu was on average one year. Over 55% of the respondents acknowledged Frundu as critical a coping strategy when famine struck Darfur and the majority of respondents were familiar with Frundu. Frundu is becoming less popular in Darfur for several reasons; including difficulty in obtaining Roselle seeds, competition from the cheapest food items especially during non-famine time; and lack of familiarity with Frundu among young generations. To boost its production, processing and utilisation, farmers should be encouraged to increase its cultivation particularly because it is an important cash crops in Sudan.</p> A.E.S. Mohammed E.A.I. Elkhalil E.M. Mohamed H. A.H. Osman A.E.M. elzein Elzein E.E.A. Ahmed Copyright (c) 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 30 s1 37 43 10.4314/acsj.v30is1.3S Insights in “Khemiss-Tweira” as a famine pearl millet coping strategy in Darfur State, Sudan <p>In an effort to intervene in the relentless food shortages during famine periods in Darfur and elsewhere in the country, the Sudanese Government has vested interest in exploiting indigenous food resources that are often given less development attention. The objective of this study was to gain insights in the value and other perceptions associated with, Khemiss-tweira, together with pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) as a famine coping food security crop in Darfur, Sudan. The study was conducted in the displacement camps in El-Fasher in North Darfur, with a particular focus on Naivasha markets. The data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, on a sample size of 140 respondents. The study found that food was mostly scarce during summer times. The majority of respondents (27.9%) used Khemiss-tweira during the famine time. A large proporstion of respondents in El-Fasher (92.1%) were familiar with Khemiss-tweira. The predominate method of preparation Khemiss-tweira was in the sequence of germination-fermentation- baking-drying-adding sugar and salt. The only difference was in the last additions where only peanuts, dates or sesame were the ingredients. The crop could be stored for more than a year without reported deterioration in food value and quality. Khemiss-tweira was commended for high acceptability by majority of the s respondents (91.4%). </p> F. A.E. Marouf E.A. I. Elkhalil E.M. Mohamed H.A. H. Osman A.E.M. Elzein E.E.A. Ahmed Copyright (c) 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 30 s1 45 51 10.4314/acsj.v30is1.4S Indigenous knowledge-based evaluation of Ambachi tuberous plant as a future famine food crop for Darfur State, Sudan <p>Malnutrition and associated diseases are major challenges in the semi-arid Sahelian zone of Africa, where rainfall is &lt;600 mm per annum. The objective of this study was to document indigenous knowledge on the significance and management of Ambachi (Dioscorea hispida) in East Darfur State, Sudan. A total of 101 respondents was interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire in Bahr Alarab Locality, located in East Darfur State. Additionally, key informants and group discussions were held with local leaders to supplement data collection. The results revealed that Ambachi plant is fairly plentiful in East Darfur state, and grows naturally in the wild. All respondents were knowledgeable about Ambachi plant’s appearance, growth cycle, usage and storage processes. Generally, Ambachi tubers are stored in various types of natural and synthetic containers, and for varied periods of time. However, up to 78% of the respondents reported Shawwal (made of plastic material), as the most preferred container for storage of dry tubers. Virtually all households (99%) attested to consuming Ambachi-based foods particularly during famine periods. Up to 98% of Ambachi plant tubers are soaked before cooking to remove the bitter taste; and two thirds of interviewees were familiar with the cooking process of Ambachi foods. Lastly, Ambachi plant tubers are tradable in different local markets across the region; although it was mainly sold in Abu matareg market located in Bahar Alara locality. </p> M. Kamal A.E.M. Elzein E.M. Mohammed E.A.I. Elkhalil H.A.H. Osman E.E.A. Ahmed Copyright (c) 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 30 s1 53 66 10.4314/acsj.v30is1.5S Value of corape plant as famine food in Darfur State, Sudan <p>Darfur state of Sudan faces famine at different times, thus necessitating a search for improved coping strategies. The objective of this study was to assess the value of Corape (Dactyloctenium aegyptiacum) plant as a food crop during famine periods in Darfur state in Sudan. Atotal of 132 respondents purposely selected from Alfashir, the capital of north Darfur were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Also, key informants and focus group discussions with local leaders of the area were engaged in data collection. A total of 82.6% attested the existence of the Corape plant in Darfur; while 49.2% confirmed its significance as a famine crop in Darfur. Corape seed is used to prepare different types of meals and its seed stores for 15 - 20 years. Corape vegetation is also used as animal fodder, which according to 28% of the respondents can be stored for 6 to 12 months without significant deterioration in quality. This study concluded that the Corape plant has a good potential as food and fodder plant and can contribute significantly to household food security and livelihoods of local communities, if the problems of storage and pests were tackled.</p> A.A.M. Ahmed H.A.H. Osman E.A.I. Elkhalil E.E.A. Ahmed A.E.M. Elzein E.M. Mohamed Copyright (c) 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 30 s1 67 76 10.4314/acsj.v30is1.6S Value chain of Balanites aegyptiaca in North Kordofan State in Sudan <p>Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) is considered as one of the valuable tree species in Sudan. This study interrogated different actors involved in B. aegyptiaca value chain to estimate the gross margins associated with their segments. The study was conducted during season 2019 in Sheikan Locality, North Kordofan State in Sudan, and involved 86 household head (10% of the population). Results indicated that value chain actors of B. aegyptiaca included fruit collectors, village traders, city merchants, wholesalers, retailers and consumers. Based on gross margins, the wholesalers were the most benefited (36.4%) in the chain, followed by village traders (33.4%), city merchants (17.6%), collectors (9.65%) and lastly retailers (2.94%). It is clear that B. aegyptiaca value chain is mostly influenced by actors at local level. </p> F.I. Musa O.E.A. Abdelkareem H.A. Abdelrhman M.E.S. Eltahir S.D.A. Fragallah E.M.I. Mohammed S.O. Tutu Copyright (c) 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 30 s1 77 83 10.4314/acsj.v30is1.7S Effect of cereal based traditional malting technology on nutritional quality of iron-rich bean flour <p>Iron deficiency is a major public health challenge affecting the health of about 18 and 13.8% of children and women globally, respectively. About 43% children and 29% women in sub-Saharan Africa suffer from Iron Deficiency Anemia. In Uganda, recent demographic health statistics indicate that the prevalence of anaemia among children of 6-59 months stands at 53%; while that for women of child bearing age stands at 32%. Biofortified iron-rich bean varieties have been developed and adopted in Uganda to contribute to alleviation of iron deficiency challenges. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of traditional malting technology on nutritional quality of biofortified iron-rich beans (Phaseoulus vulgaris L.). The study examined the effect of the traditional malting technology on: (i) the contents of anti-nutritional factors (phytates, oxalates, polyphenols, tannins, trypsin inhibitor activity); (ii) digestibility of protein and bioavailability of iron and zinc; and (iii) retention of proximate constituents and mineral micronutrient contents in bean varieties. We used three bean varieties, namely NAROBEAN 1, hereafter referred to as NB1, NAROBEAN 2 (NB2), and NAROBEAN 3 (NB3), all of which are widely produced and consumed in Acholi sub-region. Application of paired t-test revealed that the traditional malting technology reduced only the content of oxalates by 42.3-54.8 % and trypsin inhibitor activity by 6.2-34.6 %, from the three varieties. The content of total phenols was reduced by 22.3 % only in NB 1 (P&lt; 0.05). The traditional malting technology improved protein digestibility for the three varieties by 38-43.6 % (P&lt; 0.05). Bioavailability of iron improved from in NB1 by 26.7 % and NB2 by 11.5 %; while that of zinc improved for only NB2 by 51.5 % (P&lt;0.05). The contents of micronutrients and proximate constituents were not adversely affected by the traditional malting technology, except for phosphorus in NB1 and magnesium in NB3. Overall, traditional malting technology is effective at reducing trypsin inhibitors and oxalates, and improving protein digestibility and iron bioavailability. </p> M. Nafula D. Ongeng D. Alowo L. Nabatanzi S. Zziwa Copyright (c) 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 30 s1 85 107 10.4314/acsj.v30is1.8S Heterosis and combining ability for related traits in tomato <p>Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) yields have continued to plummet in Kenya due to biotic stresses and reliance on low yielding varieties. This study aimed at determining heterosis and combining ability for fruit yield and yield components among tomato genotypes and select F1 hybrids combining high fruit yield and other market demanded traits under Kenyan conditions. Ten parental genotypes and their 45 F1 hybrids were studied using 10×10 half diallel mating design, excluding the reciprocals and the self’s. The experiment was set up in Kiambu and Kirinyaga Counties in Kenya. Out of 45 F1 hybrids evaluated, 89% had reduced (negative heterosis) days to 50% flowering and 11% days to maturity, compared to their better parents. Higher heterosis (-9%) was recorded on days to flowering in AVTO1429 x Cal J VF) and -5% for maturity in Roma VF x AVTO1314. All the F1 hybrids had positive heterosis for number of trusses per plant and fruit yield. F1 hybrid AVTO1429 x AVTO1314 had the highest positive heterosis of 114.39% for fruit weight per plant yield. The results showed high significant difference among the ten genotypes for general and specific combining ability effects (male x female) for all the traits evaluated. There was additive and non-additive gene action for the traits, which are important aspects in developing a tomato breeding programme.</p> F.K. Kathimba P.M. Kimani Kimani R.D. Narla L.M. Kiriika Copyright (c) 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 30 s1 109 125 10.4314/acsj.v30is1.9S Soil carbon and nitrogen stocks in traditionally managed rangeland biomes in Karamoja sub-region, Uganda <p>Rangelands are known for their potential in mitigating rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the world. The objective of this study was to investigate the patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (N) in rangelands under traditional management systems in Karamoja sub-region in Uganda, with a view to facilitating the development of appropriate and strategic management practices for the rangeland resources. The study was conducted during the wet season of the sub-region. Four land use/cover types (cropland, grassland, woodland and thickets/shrubland) were laid out in a completely randomised design. Soil samples were collected from four plots each one measuring 50 m x 40 m in each land use/cover type. A diagonal design was used for sample collection at depths of 0 - 15 and 15 - 30 cm. Results showed that at both soil depths, croplands had the lowest mean SOC and highest N; while grasslands had the highest SOC. Also, cropland recorded the highest mean soil bulk density at both depths. Based on soil analysis only, this study showed that conversion to cropland over a specified period of time can considerably reduce the ability of rangelands to sequester carbon. Further studies to include assessment of carbon stocks in the respective vegetation biomass are recommended.</p> S. Challenge A. Egeru K. Nyombi Copyright (c) 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 30 s1 127 140 10.4314/acsj.v30is1.10S Analysis of adaptation diversity to climate variability and change among pastoral communities in north-eastern Uganda <p>Adaptation framing remains one of the major challenges to achieving greater implementation of adaptation initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Using an integrated analytical framework that frames adaptation indicators into three dimensions; adaptive, absorptive and transformative capacities, we analysed the adaptation diversity in Karamoja sub-region, Uganda. We found a strong perception of the existence of climate variability and change manifested through the occurrence of droughts, floods, hailstorms, late onset and early rainfall onset. Absorptive capacity revealed varied status of asset ownership, custodianships, and access to these assets, presence of informal social safety nets, and social cohesion. Adaptive capacity revealed the presence of a diversity of livelihood sources, livelihood assets and associated income, but its human capital indicator revealed considerably high illiteracy levels among respondents. Meanwhile, transformative capacity revealed existence of network structures, governance and institutions, facilitated access to early warning information on pests, diseases and rainfall onset. Traditional institutions and the justice system played a key role in conflict resolution, mediation and negotiation for kraals establishment, grazing, and watering rights. We conclude that pastoral communities in Karamoja have a high inclination to maintenance of stability while their flexibility and ability to change decreases with the intensity of change pro-rata. </p> A. Egeru S. Mensah D.A. Kuule A. Siya R. Asiimwe Copyright (c) 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 30 s1 141 170 10.4314/acsj.v30is1.11S Factors influencing entrepreneurial orientation levels among agri-input suppliers in Nakuru county, Kenya <p>Start-ups and small-scale agri-input suppliers (AIS) play critical roles in Kenya’s agricultural development sector. Nakuru county is the leading producer of flowers, potatoes, milk and vegetables in Kenya; creating an enabling environment for AIS start-upsto thrive. However, competition from established, medium and large-scale agri-enterprises put them at risk of closure or inhibition of their potential to survive the environmental turbulence and grow into medium or large-scale enterprises.Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) manifestations, in the form of proactiveness, innovation, and risk-taking, among other internal aspects, are considered necessary for any agri-enterprises’ start-up success, as they positively influence their growth and performance. The objective of this study was to understand factors influencing EO levels among agri-input suppliers in Nakuru County, Kenya.A study involving a sample of 137 agri-input suppliers operating in Nakuru County was carried out using face-to-face semi-structured questionnaire. Data collected were analysed using Principal Component Analysis, Quartile technique, and the Generalised Ordered Logit (GOL) model. Overall, the variety of traded agri-input products showed the most significant positive influence on EO levels, followed by possession of business plan, partnership, customers’ contracts and gender factors, in that order of magnitude. On the other hand, years ofagri-enterprise operation and the number of agri-input business owners showed negative influence on EO levels. The list of prioritised significant factors is important in informing agripreneurs, policy makers and socio-economic development agencies when&nbsp;designing development programmes and strategies aimed at promoting agripreneurship in Kenya.</p> D.M. Musyoka E. Gathungu E.O. Gido Copyright (c) 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 30 s1 171 183 10.4314/acsj.v30is1.12S Factors determining intensity of camel adoption in semi-arid north-eastern Uganda <p>Integration of camel (Camelus dromedarius) production in the traditional livestock systems is increasingly gaining significance as a strategy for household adaptation to prolonged and recurrent droughts in African arid and semi-arid lands. There is increasing interest in promoting camels as a strategy to mitigate the effects of prolonged droughts in communities where camels have not been reared before. However, the intensity of camel adoption and the factors that drive camel adoption process in semi-arid Uganda are not clear. The objective of this study was to determine the level of intensity and socio-economic factors influencing the intensity of camel adoption in Karamoja sub-region in Uganda. Econometric results show that age the of a household head was significantly associated with the intensity of camel adoption; whereas household size, credit access and crop area cultivated significantly decreased with the intensity of camel adoption in the region. Increasing camel adoption was possible with increasing access to capital; as well as carefully balancing the competition for labour with crop cultivation. </p> R. Asiimwe J.B. Salamula J. Namaawa G.M. Diiro A. Egeru Copyright (c) 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 30 s1 185 196 10.4314/acsj.v30is1.13S