Acta Structilia <p><em>Acta Structilia</em><strong> </strong><em>Journal </em>is a South African accredited national journal for independently adjudicated research articles on any topic in the field of the physical and development sciences<strong> </strong>on subjects in any applicable field of scholarship, i.e. architecture, urban and regional planning, quantity surveying, construction management and project management, building economy, engineering and property or community development.</p><p> </p> University of the Free State en-US Acta Structilia 1023-0564 <p><strong>Copyright:</strong><strong> </strong>Copyright is transferred to the author(s) when an article is accepted for publication. <strong> </strong><strong><br /> <strong>Publishing rights:</strong> </strong>When an author/s publish an article in <em>Acta Structilia</em>, the author/s enter into a non-exclusive publishing agreement. This means that author/s may upload a second copy to institutional repositories.</p> Trends in application of green star SA credits in South African green building <p>The South African green building industry is growing towards maturity. Stakeholders need to observe, document, and be informed&nbsp; about trends and development of the industry. This article evaluates whether application trends have emerged of often achieved and seldom achieved Green Star SA credits by all new office buildings that received a Green Star SA rating between 2009 and 2015 in South Africa. Any observed trends are further described by aspects such as the categories of the Green Star SA tool and the Green Star SA rating achieved. The article considers the data of 95 office buildings, made available by the Green Building Council of South Africa (GBCSA). A quantatitive research approach is used to investigate the use frequency of every credit in the Green Star SA tool and to identify trends in credit use. The study finds that 21 of the 67 credits are achieved on average by &gt;80% of the certified projects. Another 14 credits have an average achievement rate of &lt;20%. The nine categories of the Green Star SA tool also varies from average achievements of 84% for Water to only 19% for Innovation. The Green Star SA rating level is also found to be positively correlated to often used credits and negatively correlated to seldom used credits. This article observes industry-wide trends with the potential to negatively affect the ability of green buildings to deliver the required sustainability outcomes expected of them. This finding and the potential outcome thereof need to be monitored and managed by stakeholders such as the GBCSA.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Application trends, green building, South Africa, sustainability, trends</p> <p>Die Suid-Afrikaanse groenbou-industrie groei tot volwassenheid. Dit is belangrik dat belangegroepe ingelig bly oor die verskillende fasette en ontwikkelings van die industrie. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die tendense in die toepassing van die Groenster-krediete van die verskillende nuwe Suid-Afrikaanse kantoorgeboue wat Groenster-gradering verwerf het tussen 2009 en 2015. Die studie soek na die bestaan van tendense in die nastreef van krediete wat verwerf is as deel van die groenbousertifiseringsproses. Enige geïdentifiseerde tendense word verder beskryf deur evaluering van aspekte soos die kategorieë van die Groenster-werksdokument en die Groenster-graderingvlak wat verwerf is. Die artikel oorweeg die data van 95 kantoorgeboue, beskibaar gestel deur die Groenbouraad van Suid-Afrika (GBRSA). ’n Kwantitatiewe navorsingsbenadering is gevolg om die gebruiksfrekwensie van elke krediet in the Groenster- werksdokument te ondersoek en om tendense in die gebruik van krediete te identifiseer. Die studie bevind dat 21 van die 67 krediete gemiddeld deur &gt;80% van gesertifiseerde geboue verwerf is, terwyl 14 ander krediete deur &lt;20% van gesertifiseerde geboue verwerf is. Die nege kategorieë van die Groenster-werksdokument wissel ook van 84% gemiddelde benutting vir Water tot 19% vir Innovasie. Die Groenster-gradering was ook positief gekorreleerd met dikwels benutte krediete en negatief gekorreleerd met selde verwerfde&nbsp; krediete. Die artikel identifiseer tendense met die potensiaal om die vermoë van groengeboue om hul verwagte volhoubare resultate te lewer, negatief te beïnvloed. Hierdie bevindinge en die potensiële effek daarvan behoort gemonitor en bestuur te word deur ’n belangegroep soos die GBRSA.</p> <p><strong>Sleutelwoorde</strong>: Groenbou, ontwerpstrategieë, Suid-Afrika, tendense, volhoubaarheid </p> Danie Hoffman Ling-Yi Huang Jean van Rensburg Amy Yorke-Hart Copyright (c) 2021-06-07 2021-06-07 27 2 1 29 Assessment of transportation efficiency for the delivery of construction material in north-central Nigeria <p>In Nigeria, knowledge on the management of construction material logistics system, especially in transportation, is inadequate. This&nbsp; article assesses construction material manufacturers’ transportation efficiency for the delivery of construction material, in order to improve manufacturers’ transport operation in North-Central Nigeria. A total of 32 construction material manufacturers delivered their material to 42 distribution centres/warehouses and retailer stores, and 30 construction sites were purposely selected. The selected construction materials manufacturers produce six types of materials, namely cement, reinforcement bars (steel), ceramic tiles, crushed<br>stones, masonry hollow sandcrete blocks, and sand (fine and coarse). A case study research design method was used, in which&nbsp; quantitative data were collected and analysed. An observation (quantitative) guide was used as the research instrument. The&nbsp; quantitative data collected were analysed, using descriptive statistical tools such as frequencies and percentiles. The results revealed<br>that transportation efficiency levels are low in their vehicles’ dwell time, loading and off-loading vehicles at the warehouses, retailer stores, and construction sites. It was also revealed that no technology was used in the transport system to integrate the manufacturers’ warehouses with the other logistics partners in the supply chain. The article concludes that manufacturers should address&nbsp; transportation operations along the delivery nodes to help ensure that the construction material arrives at its final destination at optimal quality, time and cost.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Construction material, efficiency, manufacturer logistics, technology, transportation<br><br>In Nigerië is kennis oor die bestuur van die logistieke stelsel vir konstruksiemateriaal, veral in vervoer, onvoldoende. Hierdie artikel evalueer die doeltreffendheid van die vervoer vir die aflewering van konstruksiemateriaal deur konstruksiemateriaalvervaardigers,<br>ten einde die vervaardigingsvervoer in Noord-Sentraal Nigerië te verbeter. Altesaam 32 konstruksiemateriaalvervaardigers wat hul materiaal by 42 verspreidingsentrums/pakhuise en kleinhandelaarswinkels aflewer, asook 30 konstruksieterreine is doelbewus vir hierdie studie gekies. Die gekose konstruksiemateriaalvervaardigers vervaardig ses soorte materiaal, naamlik sement, wapeningstawe (staal), keramiekteëls, gebreekte klippe, messelwerk, hol sandbetonblokke en sand (fyn en grof). ’n Gevallestudie&nbsp;&nbsp; navorsingsontwerpmetode is gebruik, waarin kwantitatiewe data versamel en ontleed is. ’n Waarnemingsgids (kwantitatiewe) is as navorsingsinstrument gebruik. Die kwantitatiewe data wat versamel is, is geanaliseer met behulp van beskrywende statistiese&nbsp; instrumente soos frekwensies en persentiele. Die resultate het getoon dat die doeltreffendheid van vervoer laag is in terme van voertuigverblyftyd, asook tydens die op- en aflaai van voertuie by die pakhuise, kleinhandelaarswinkels en terreine. Resultate toon ook dat daar nie van tegnologie in die vervoerstelsel gebruik gemaak word om die vervaardigerspakhuis met die ander logistieke vennote in die verskaffingsketting te integreer nie. Die aanbeveling is dat vervaardigers vervoerbedrywighede langs die afleweringsnodusse moet aanspreek om te verseker dat konstruksiemateriaal by die finale bestemming teen optimale kwaliteit, tyd en koste kom.</p> <p><strong>Sleutelwoorde:</strong> Doeltreffendheid, konstruksiemateriaal, tegnologie, vervaardigerslogistiek, vervoer</p> Polycarp Alumbugu Winston Shakantu Abel Tsado Copyright (c) 2021-06-07 2021-06-07 27 2 30 56 Housing poverty in developing countries: Challenges and implications for decent accommodation in Swedru, Ghana <p>Adequate supply of housing remains a challenge in developing countries. This article assesses the extent of housing poverty in&nbsp; developing countries and its implication for decent accommodation1 in Swedru, Ghana. Using a cross-sectional survey design coupled with stratified and systematic sampling techniques, 1,161 household participants were selected. Questionnaires and interviews were<br>used to collect raw data from 496 houses in 16 neighbourhoods in the Swedru Township, Ghana. Findings showed that the vast majority of houses in the Swedru Township share common housing facilities such as bathroom and lavatory. This has compelled some households to resort to bathing in open spaces, while practising free range especially in the morning where households have to queue for bathing and using the toilet facility. A room occupancy rate of 5.51 indicates that households are congested and a population of 4,603 accommodated in 496 housing units is evident. It was revealed that the high level of non-decent accommodation in the&nbsp; municipality is attributable to ill-enforcement of building laws that has allowed houseowners to supply housing without lavatories with impunity. Hence, effective implementation of the L.I.1630 was recommended.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Decent accommodation, deficit, housing facility, housing supply</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Voldoende aanbod van behuising bly ’n uitdaging in ontwikkelende lande. In hierdie artikel word die omvang van behuisingsarmoede in ontwikkelende lande en die implikasies daarvan vir ordentlike akkommodasie in Swedru, Ghana, beoordeel. Met behulp van ’n deursnee-opname-ontwerp tesame met gestratifiseerde en sistematiese monsternemingstegnieke, is 1 161 huishoudelike deelnemers gekies. Vraelyste en onderhoude is gebruik om rou-data van 496 huise in 16 woonbuurte in die Swedru Township, Ghana, te versamel.&nbsp; Bevindinge het getoon dat die oorgrote meerderheid huise in die Swedru Township gemeenskaplike huisvestingsgeriewe soos&nbsp; badkamer en toilet deel. Dit het sommige huishoudings genoop om te gaan bad in oop ruimtes, terwyl huishoudings moet wag om te bad en die toiletgeriewe te gebruik. ’n Kamerbesettingskoers van 5,51 dui aan dat huishoudings oorvol is en dat daar ’n bevolking van 4603 in 496 wooneenhede is. Daar is aan die lig gebring dat die hoë vlak van nie-ordentlike akkommodasie in die munisipaliteit te wyte is aan die swak handhawing van die bouwette wat huiseienaars toegelaat het om straffeloos behuising sonder toilette te voorsien. Daarom word ’n effektiewe implementering van die L.I.1630 aanbeveel.</p> <p><strong>Sleutelwoorde</strong>: Behuisingsaanbod, behuisingsfasiliteit, ordentlike akkommodasie, tekort </p> Peres Ofori Copyright (c) 2021-06-07 2021-06-07 27 2 57 92 Macroeconomic leading indicators of listed property price movements in Nigeria and South Africa <p>This article aims to identify macroeconomic leading indicators that influence changes in the listed property price movements in South Africa and Nigeria. This serves to improve the quantitative approaches to investment appraisal in emerging markets of sub-Saharan Africa. The data relating to macroeconomic leading indicators, including Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) Listed Property (J253) quarterly price data, Nigerian listed real-estate data, and Macroeconomic indicator series for Nigeria and South Africa, were collected<br>from Iress Expert Database, Stats SA, the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), the National Bureau of Statistics (Nigeria), and the World Bank. The article identifies that coincident indicators and the exchange rate have a positive and significant relationship with the JSE-listed real estate in the South African market. While the bank lending rate, the consumer price index, and the Treasury bill rate (TBR) are identified as reliable indicators in the Nigerian listed real-estate market. The results show that investors must pay attention to these indices in their choice of the market(s) within the sub-Saharan African context, as this will guarantee capital appreciation or growth.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Indicators, investment, listed property, macroeconomic, price</p> <p><br>Hierdie artikel het ten doel om makro-ekonomiese leidende aanwysers te identifiseer wat die veranderinge in die genoteerde eiendomsprysbewegings in Suid-Afrika en Nigerië beïnvloed. Dit help om die kwantitatiewe benaderings tot beleggingsbeoordeling in opkomende markte in Afrika suid van die Sahara te verbeter. Die gegewens rakende makro-ekonomiese leidende aanwysers, insluitend die kwartaallikse prysdata van die Johannesburgse Effektebeurs (J253), die Nigeriese vaste eiendomsdata en die makro-ekonomiese aanwyserreeks vir Nigerië en Suid-Afrika is versamel van Iress Expert Database, Stats SA, die Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), die National Bureau of Statistics (Nigeria) en die Wêreldbank. In die artikel word aangedui dat samevallende aanwysers en die wisselkoers ’n positiewe en beduidende verband het met die JSEgenoteerde vaste eiendom in die Suid-Afrikaanse mark. Terwyl die bankleningsyfer, die verbruikersprysindeks en die skatkis (TBR) as betroubare aanwysers in die Nigeriese genoteerde eiendomsmark geïdentifiseer word. Die resultate toon dat beleggers aandag moet skenk aan hierdie indekse in hul keuse van die mark(te) binne Afrika suid van die Sahara, aangesien dit kapitaalappresiasie of groei sal waarborg.</p> <p><strong>Sleutelwoorde</strong>: Aanwysers, belegging, genoteerde eiendom, makro-ekonomies, prys</p> Jonathan Oladeji Joseph Yacim Kevin Wall Benita Zulch Copyright (c) 2021-06-07 2021-06-07 27 2 93 119 Identifying factors of collaboration critical for improving health and safety performance in construction projects: A systematic literature review <p>Collaboration is key to the success of construction project delivery. Several researchers have realised the importance of collaboration for health and safety (H&amp;S) performance. The construction industry (CI) is affected by poor H&amp;S performance exacerbated by lack of collaboration. The purpose of the article is to conduct a systematic literature review to identify factors of collaboration that will improve<br>H&amp;S performance in CI. A literature review method was adopted; identification test method was used to identify collaboration factors. Using Scopus and Google Scholar, a total of 758 papers were identified. 57 papers were found to be relevant for review through content analysis and were analysed in terms of source and year of publication, research method, country of origin, and research focus. The review identified 11 critical success factors of collaboration: trust, culture, commitment, communication, clear roles and responsibilities, resource/information sharing, mutual goals, conflict resolution, early involvement of key participants, competence, and continual improvement. These factors can influence H&amp;S performance in construction projects. Focusing on these factors can facilitate&nbsp; collaboration, thus improving H&amp;S performance. The limitation of this article is that the literature review covered a period between 2010 to 2019. Searches in other search engines might have provided additional information on collaboration. The findings of this study make way for future research into the impact of collaboration on H&amp;S performance and provide an understanding that H&amp;S performance can be improved by adopting collaboration. The review concludes that CI should adopt collaboration to influence H&amp;S performance.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Construction industry, factors of collaboration, health and safety performance, literature review</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Samewerking is die sleutel tot suksesvolle konstruksieprojekte. Verskeie navorsers besef die belangrikheid van samewerking vir&nbsp; gesondheids- en veiligheidsprestasies (G&amp;V). Die konstruksiebedryf word geraak deur swak G&amp;V-prestasies wat vererger word deur gebrek aan samewerking. Die doel van die artikel is om ’n sistematiese literatuuroorsig te doen om faktore van samewerking te identifiseer wat die prestasie van G&amp;V in die konstruksiebedryf sal verbeter. ’n Literatuurbeoordelingsmetode is gebruik; die identifikasietoetsmetode is gebruik om samewerkingsfaktore te identifiseer. Met behulp van Scopus en Google Scholar is altesaam 758 artikels geïdentifiseer. Daar is bevind dat 57 artikels relevant is vir hersiening deur middel van inhoudsanalise en is geanaliseer<br>in terme van bron en jaar van publikasie, navorsingsmetode, land van herkoms en navorsingsfokus. Die oorsig het 11 kritieke&nbsp; suksesfaktore van samewerking geïdentifiseer: vertroue, kultuur, toewyding, kommunikasie, duidelike rolle en verantwoordelikhede, die deel van hulpbronne/inligting, onderlinge doelwitte, konflikoplossing, vroeë betrokkenheid van sleuteldeelnemers, bekwaamheid en voortdurende verbetering. Hierdie faktore kan H&amp;S-prestasie in bouprojekte beïnvloed. Deur op hierdie faktore te konsentreer, kan dit samewerking vergemaklik en sodoende die prestasie van G&amp;V verbeter. Die beperking van hierdie artikel is dat die literatuuroorsig ’n tydperk tussen 2010 en 2019 beslaan. Soektogte in ander soekenjins kon moontlik aanvullende inligting oor samewerking verskaf. Die bevindinge van hierdie studie maak plek vir toekomstige navorsing oor die impak van samewerking op G&amp;V-prestasies en bied ’n begrip dat G&amp;V-prestasies verbeter kan word deur samewerking. Die oorsig kom tot die gevolgtrekking dat die konstruksiebedryf samewerking moet aanneem om G&amp;V-prestasies te beïnvloed.</p> <p><strong>Sleutelwoorde</strong>: Konstruksiebedryf, faktore van samewerking, gesondheids- en veiligheidsprestasies, literatuuroorsig </p> Ndaleni Rantsatsi Innocent Musonda Justus Agumba Copyright (c) 2021-06-07 2021-06-07 27 2 120 150 The building emission reduction potential of South African residential building efficiency tools – A review <p>The building sector’s levels of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption are a significant contributor to South Africa’s overall carbon emissions. This influences the country’s ability to meet its commitments to the Paris Agreement, which aims to limit the effects of global climate change. This review article focuses on the climate change mitigation strategies that are employed by the building sector, specifically the potential impact of mandatory and voluntary building energy efficiency regulations, standards, initiatives, and certifications common to South Africa’s residential market. International research on the impact of green building tools tends to focus on the commercial rather than the residential sector, due to limited energy data availability. Within this context and given the exploratory and evaluative nature of the present research endeavour, substantial reliance has had to be made on grey literature for this research. A review of the South African building efficiency tools shows that there is potential for a 16% reduction in the energy intensity of the residential sector by 2030. This will, however, be offset by the projected increased building floor area and is as such insufficient to meet South Africa’s commitments to the Paris Agreement. Thus, more ambitious targets are required. Given the growth of the residential sector and the potential impact of the various tools, a focus on improved and timeous mandatory regulations for new builds is crucial, in order to meet our climate commitments.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Building energy efficiency tools, climate change mitigation, green buildings, residential sector<br><br>Die energieverbruik en kweekhuisgasvrystellings deur die boubedryf lewer ’n beduidende bydrae tot Suid-Afrika se algehele&nbsp; koolstofvrystelling en beïnvloed ons vermoë om ons verbintenisse tot die Parys-ooreenkoms na te kom, wat daarop gemik is om klimaatverandering te beperk. Hierdie oorsigartikel ondersoek die versagtingsmaatreëls&nbsp; dat in die boubedryf gebruik word om klimaatverandering te bekamp, en spesifiek die potensiële energie-besparende impak van verpligte en vrywillige&nbsp;&nbsp; energiedoeltreffendheid of groenbou-instrumente wat in die Suid-Afrikaanse residensiële mark gebruik word. Internasionale navorsing is tipies toegespits op die impak van groenbouinstrumente op die kommersiële eerder as op die residensiële sektor, as gevolg van beperkte beskikbaarheid van energiedata in die residensiële sektor wêreldwyd. Gegewe hierdie konteks, en die verkennende en evaluerende aard van die navorsing, moes daar aansienlike vertroue op ’n aantal grysliteratuur vir hierdie navorsing gemaak word. Na<br>’n hersiening van die Suid-Afrikaanse residensiële groenbou-instrumente, is daar ’n potensiaal vir ’n afname van 16% in die energie-intensiteit van die residensiële sektor teen 2030. Hierdie afname word egter teengewerk deur die geprojekteerde toename in algehele residensiële vloeroppervlakte en is sodanig onvoldoende om aan ons verbintenisse van die Parys-ooreenkoms te voldoen. Meer ambisieuse teikens word dus benodig. Gegewe die groei in die residensiële sektor en die potensiële impak van die verskillende groenbou-instrumente, is tydige en verbeterde verpligte regulasies vir nuwe geboue uiters belangrik om aan ons klimaatverbintenisse te voldoen.</p> <p><strong>Sleutelwoorde</strong>: Energiebesparings, groenbou-instrumente, groen geboue, klimaatverandering, residensiële sektor,&nbsp;&nbsp; versagtingsmaatreëls&nbsp; </p> Brian Boshoff Cornelia Mey Copyright (c) 2021-06-07 2021-06-07 27 2 151 185 English-Afrikaans bilingual building dictionary <p>No Abstract.</p> Pierre Oosthuizen Copyright (c) 2021-06-07 2021-06-07 27 2 186 187