HIV/TB Co-infection Among HIV Positive Children Attending Clinics In Imo State University Teaching Hospital Orlu, Imo State, Nigeria
Background: Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome and tuberculosis are among the leading causes of death from infectious diseases worldwide. The resurgence of tuberculosis in children is partly attributed to the coexisting burden of human immunodeficiency virus infection, which is most pronounced in sub Saharan Africa.
Aim: To determine the prevalence and pattern of HIV/TB co-infection among HIV positive children attending clinics at Imo State University Teaching Hospital.
Method: This is a retrospective review of HIV/AIDS children attending HIV clinics at Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, Imo State, Nigeria from January, 2011- December, 2012.
Results: Of the total of 128 HIV infected children reviewed during the 24 months period, 16(12.5%) were coinfected with tuberculosis, (95% CI, 10.7% - 14.3%). Among these 16 patients, TB co-infection was diagnosed before commencement of ART in 93.7% of them. Majority of the TB cases (87.5%) presented with pulmonary TB amongst whom only 25.0% were sputum positive. The factors found to affect TB development significantly were stage of HIV disease (p=0.000) and CD4 count level (P=0.021) of patients. The factor with the highest influence on TB development was the clinical stage of HIV disease (Odds ratio =6.013) and that of least influence was sex of patient (Odds ratio= 0.8319).
Conclusion: The study revealed a moderately high TB/HIV co-infection rate. Low CD4 count level below 200cell/ml and late clinical stages of HIV disease contribute significantly to the development of TB disease.
Key Words: HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, co-infection, children.