African Research Review https://www.ajol.info/index.php/afrrev <p class="Default"><span lang="EN-US">African Research Review (AFRREV) is a Peer Reviewed Multi-Disciplinary Journal of the <strong>International Association of African Researchers and Reviewers (IAARR) </strong>with its head office in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Its aim is to publish scholarly research outputs in and on Africa. Its focus is on the broad areas of Africa Development and issues in various Academic Disciplines. AFRREV will also publish research monographs, feature articles, brief notes, comments on published articles and book review. The journal is published about four times a year (January, April, July &amp; October) and other issues as the case may be.&nbsp;</span></p> <p>As of 2013 all issues of AFRREV will be open access and therefore free to download.</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal:<a title="http://afrrevjo.net/?q=ijah_home/archive" href="http://afrrevjo.net/?q=ijah_home/archive" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> http://afrrevjo.net/?q=ijah_home/archive</a></p> International Association of African Researchers en-US African Research Review 1994-9057 <p>Copyright is owners of the journal.</p><p>African Research Review by <a href="http://creativecommons.org/choose/www.afrrevjo.net">International Association of African Researchers and Reviewers</a> is licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/deed.en_US">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License</a>.</p> Reducing Old Age Vulnerabilities in Developing Countries: The Role of Income-Support on Poor Older People’s Health https://www.ajol.info/index.php/afrrev/article/view/195262 <p>This systematic review is on the impact of income-support on older people’s health in developing countries. A systematic search for non-randomised and mixed methods studies published between 2013 and 2017 was conducted in academic and grey literature databases, websites and references lists of relevant studies. Study methodological quality was assessed with a risk of bias tool. Inclusion criteria were met by 7 studies, 3 in Latin America, two each in Africa and Asia. Five of the studies used a quantitative non-randomised approach while the remaining two used mixed methods analysis. Income-support was discovered to have positive effects on older people’s nutritional status, cognitive functions, health and psychological wellbeing. Income-support offers older people access to healthcare services and protection against detrimental effects of lack of money in accessing healthcare services.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>: Health, income-support, older people</p> Oladayo Nathaniel Awojobi Jane Temidayo Abe Copyright (c) 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 14 1 1 16 10.4314/afrrev.v14i1.1 The Determinants of People’s Preference of Night Entertainment Outfits in Abuja, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/afrrev/article/view/195263 <p>Night entertainment as a form of leisure and relaxation is not a strange phenomenon globally, it is also gaining prominence in Nigeria particularly in urban centre. Scholars have discussed the prospects of this brand of entertainment in terms of its economic and social rewards, but most of these efforts are foreign based. This study studied the situation in Abuja in Nigeria. The study was quantitative in approach and has questionnaire as its main tool of data collection. A total 100 respondents were involved in the study. The data collected were analyzed, interpreted and presented in simple percentage. Night entertainment was preferred because the period is unique, devoid of hustle and bustle commonly found in the day time (17%) and has power to enhance total wellbeing, opportunity to make business contacts (19%). Live Musical band (42%), wining and dining (34%), indoor game (14%) and comedy corner (10%) were the preferred activities. Challenges encountered in night entertainment include harassment by the law enforcement agents (36%), stigmatization on the part of the general populace (22%) and occasional disturbance due to unruly behaviour of some patrons (30%). Coping measures adopted to mitigate these challenges include moving in group with other patrons to prevent or minimise embarrassment (43%), possession of official identity card to prevent harassment from security agents (36%) and enlightenment of service of security agents to curtail unruly behaviour from patrons (21%).</p> Musediq Olufemi Lawal Tajudeen Yusuf Adeyinka Tajudeen Yusuf Adeyinka OlorunfemiBoye Oyediran Ebenezer Adegboyega Oluwole Copyright (c) 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 14 1 17 26 10.4314/afrrev.v14i1.2 Parental Involvement: A Response to Children with Disability’s Education https://www.ajol.info/index.php/afrrev/article/view/195264 <p>Drawing on the fact that education of children is a human right issue, the study explored parent’s involvement in the education of their children with disabilities. Using quantitative research methodology, 166 respondents were sampled from two selected basic schools in Koforidua, Ghana. Results indicated that, often the demand on parents such as time, work, house chores, and many other commitments impede their preference to be involved in their children’s education. The school activities most parents involved themselves in are the Parent Teachers Association’s (P.T.A.) meetings. This is because parents do not see themselves as having interest in many of the other activities children in school are involved in. Equally, though some parents from poor background may want to educate their child with disability, the cost involved in educating the child is high. Evidence showed that there was a moderate level of parents’ involvement in the education of their children with disability and that the level of involvement is associated with the socio-economic status of such parents. The study concluded that parental involvement in their children with disabilities education leads to positive learning outcomes and academic achievements. It was recommended among others that parents should get involved in decisions concerning the education of their children with disability; parents must honour invitations from schools and speak with school staff and teachers. Again, parents should disabuse their minds of the perceptions that taking their child with disability to school is of no benefit and a waste of resources.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>: Parents, children with disabilities, education</p> Efua Esaaba Mantey Copyright (c) 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 14 1 27 39 10.4314/afrrev.v14i1.3 Repositioning Conceptual Understanding of Adult Education for Social Transformation in Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/afrrev/article/view/195265 <p>The conceptual understanding of Adult Education and its mission has continued to suffer much neglect in various quarters in the education sector. The debate on the status of the discipline has been accorded low esteem and relegated to the background in government circles, in the intellectual community and public perception despite the huge potentials it offers in the developmental process. This paper is an attempt at repositioning the understanding of Adult Education to restore the image of poor perception from policy makers and implementers of adult education programmes in Nigeria. The paper examined the utilitarian value of adult education needed for the transformation of the plethora of problems in the economic, social and political landscape of society. It recommended that there is need to redesign adult education curriculum to sustain its nomenclature for lifelong learning to bring about the needed recognition as a career discipline in the education system for maximum benefit in Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>: Repositioning, Conceptual, Understanding, Social, Transformation, Adult Education</p> Ikechukwu M. Okafor Apuega R. Arikawei Copyright (c) 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 14 1 40 51 10.4314/afrrev.v14i1.4 Assessment of Adequacy, Availability and Extent of Utilization of Instructional Materials in the Teaching of Business Studies in Secondary Schools in Anambra State https://www.ajol.info/index.php/afrrev/article/view/195266 <p>The need to improve the teaching and learning of Business Studies in secondary schools necessitated this study to assess the adequacy, availability and extent of utilization of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of Business Studies in secondary schools in Anambra State. Three research questions guided the study. The population of the study comprised 305 business studies teachers from 257 public secondary schools in Anambra State. Purposive and Cluster sampling were used to select 85 Secondary schools and 120 Business Studies teachers respectively. Instruments for data collection were standardized checklist and structure questionnaire. The checklist was used by the researchers to assess the adequacy of the instructional materials used in the teaching of business studies while the structured questionnaire was used to determine the availability and extent of utilization of instructional materials in the teaching of business studies. The questionnaire was validated by five experts with a reliability coefficient of 0.86. Data collected were analysed using Frequency, Percentage, Mean and Standard Deviation. Findings from the study revealed that instructional materials required in the teaching of Business Studies in secondary schools were not adequately provided. Also, that most of the instructional materials were available but not adequate and they were lowly utilized. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others that government and philanthropists should support public secondary schools and made available, adequate number of the instructional materials needed for effective teaching and learning of business studies.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong> – assessment; adequacy; availability; utilization; instructional materials; business studies</p> Jacinta Ifeoma Obidile Oluchi Chinazor Obi Copyright (c) 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 14 1 52 60 10.4314/afrrev.v14i1.5 Status of Principals’ ICT Usage in Secondary School Administration in Rivers State https://www.ajol.info/index.php/afrrev/article/view/195267 <p>This study examined the status of principals’ ICT usage in secondary school administration in Rivers State. The study adopted a descriptive research design. The population of the study was 276 Principals from the 276 Senior Secondary Schools in Rivers State. A sample size of 138 was drawn using simple random sampling techniques. This represented 50% of the total population. Five research questions and five hypotheses guided the study. A self-designed questionnaire tagged “Principals’ Information and Communication Technology Usage Questionnaire (PICTUQ)”, which was a modified 2 points rating scale of YES =2 points and NO= 1 point. The data were analyzed using Mean and Standard Deviation. The criterion mean of 1.50 was used as benchmark for taking decision of each of the items of the research questions. Any score up to 1.50 and above was accepted; while score below 1.50 was rejected as not having desired impact. The z-test was used to test the hypotheses. The findings of the study revealed that both the rural and urban principals upheld the fact that there is no computer laboratory, computers, scanners, projector and power generating plants in public secondary schools in Rivers State. The study recommended that: ICT facilities should be installed in all secondary schools in Rivers State; adequate number of experts should be employed to train principals and students in ICT; adequate funds should be provided to manage the process for adequate educational quality service delivery in schools; government should set committee to install and monitor ICT facilities and its usage in public schools in Rivers State.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>: ICT, Administration, ICT access, ICT application, ICT literacy, Principals’ performance.</p> Lois Nkechi Abraham John Bariyaa Copyright (c) 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 14 1 61 71 10.4314/afrrev.v14i1.6 On Polar Question in Echie and English: A Transformational Approach https://www.ajol.info/index.php/afrrev/article/view/195269 <p>The formation of polar question also called a Yes-No question, appears to be language-specific, a situation which makes Echie speakers to find it difficult to accommodate the system of the English language, vice versa. This paper, using the qualitative design and the transformation approach, investigated the structural forms of both languages. The analysis showed great structural differences in both languages: while there is a swop in the position of the subject and the auxiliary in English, there is no such in Echie. In Echie, there are two forms of polar question realization: the resumptive pronoun type and the emphatic construction type. The paper noted that, although, the structural and derivational forms parametrically differ, polar questions exist in both languages and also perform the same syntactic and functional communicative roles.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>: Polar, resumptive, inversion, emphatic, transformation</p> Michael Alozie Nwala Copyright (c) 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 14 1 72 83 10.4314/afrrev.v14i1.7 Feminism in Africa and African Women’s Writing https://www.ajol.info/index.php/afrrev/article/view/195270 <p>Feminism developed out of the discontents of women in the West. Although African women, over the ages, have always been sensitive to all forms of discrimination within the African society, the emergence of feminism and feminist consciousness-raising awakened in them a new awareness of their oppression through the inequalities in society, reinforced by patriarchal tradition and culture. Many African women have aligned themselves with feminism and the feminist cause and, despite all odds have made remarkable progress in their lives and society and gained respectable acceptance and recognition from even the most stubborn reluctance of male domination. This trend has been captured by African women writers in their literary works which reflect the progress African women have made in transitioning from the margin to the centre and their contributions to social change.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>: Feminism, Africa, patriarchy, African women, consciousness-raising, change</p> Margaret Fafa Nutsukpo Copyright (c) 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 14 1 84 94 10.4314/afrrev.v14i1.8 The Dynamics of Underdevelopment in the African Novel: A Comparative Appraisal of Anglophone and Francophone Fiction https://www.ajol.info/index.php/afrrev/article/view/195271 <p>The post-independence era in sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by progressive underdevelopment. From the 1960s till date no meaningful development has occurred, and all known development strategies that have so far been adopted have defied all logic. Accordingly, some social scientists and scholars of development theories have come to the sad conclusion that with respect to Africa, all development theories have hit the rocks (Chambua, 1994, p, 37). The implication is that in all spheres of human endeavour, Africa south of the Sahara has failed. The leadership problem is one of the plagues that have bedevilled the West African sub region. And from the failure of leadership stems a truckload of woes: infrastructural deficit, corruption, neo-colonialist propensity, unemployment, ethnicity, educational backwardness, declining living standards, etc. This situation has left Africans disillusioned and disappointed. And African writers from the Anglophone and Francophone worlds have not relented in their condemnation of the post-independence malaise. Their oeuvre is a clear reflection of the battered landscape. Thus, in the works of Chinua Achebe, Wale Okediran, AhmadouKourouma and J.R. Essomba, the reader is led into the very soul of a continent in turmoil. These authors are selected from both sides of the linguistic divide. Whereas, Achebe and Okediran are Anglophones from Nigeria, Kourouma and Essomba are Francophones from Côte d’Ivoire and Cameroon respectively. This paper therefore attempted a diachronic investigation of the works of these authors in order to uncover the pervasive indices of underdevelopment. In other words, between Achebe and Okediran on the one hand, and between Kourouma and Essomba on the other hand, one discovers that the ills which the earlier novelists condemned in the first decade of independence have only gone from bad to worse some five decades later. The methodological approach adopted for this research work is textual analysis/ intertextuality, while privileging a socio-historical framework.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>: underdevelopment, West Africa, dynamics, Achebe, Okediran, Kourouma, Essomba</p> Kalu Wosu Copyright (c) 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 14 1 95 105 10.4314/afrrev.v14i1.9 Peace Building and Conflict Transformation in Nigeria: The Role of De Norsemen Kclub Incorporated in an Environmentally Challenged Society, 1982-2018 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/afrrev/article/view/195272 <p>This paper examined the role of De Norsemen Kclub Incorporated in peace building and conflict transformation in an environmentally challenged society like Nigeria. Over the years, environmental crisis has become a re-occurring decimal that threatens the sovereignty of Nigeria with the civil societies, religious leaders and nongovernmental organisations seeking to proffer solutions. However, arguments have raged on whether or not De Norsemen has the capacity to ensure peace and resolve conflict in a volatile country like Nigeria. Some are of the opinion that De Norsemen Kclub lacks the legitimate powers to maintain peace because of their inclination to school cult gangs and therefore, they should be proscribed. Other side of the argument opines that De Norsemen Kclub Incorporated are legitimate organization registered under the Corporate Affairs Commission whose motto is “service to humanity” and since conflict is a threat to human security, they therefore have the powers to advocate for peace. Against this background, this paper argued that peace building and conflict transformation are concepts in conflict resolution strategies that are often taken to ensure that conflicts in the society are deescalated and reduced to the barest minimal. The position of the paper is that De Norsemen Kclub is not associated with any form of cultism, they operate under the sovereign constitution of Nigeria and has right like other nongovernmental organisations to make peace and resolve conflict in Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>: Peace building, conflict transformation, De Norsemen, environment, society</p> Solomon Amiara Amiara Peace Udoamaka Odii Obiora I. Nwobi Copyright (c) 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 14 1 106 118 10.4314/afrrev.v14i1.10 Implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility by Oil Companies in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: Myth or Reality https://www.ajol.info/index.php/afrrev/article/view/195273 <p>Niger Delta region of Nigeria is a home to many multinational oil companies with different packages of corporate social responsibility (CSR) because of its huge natural resource reserve especially of oil and gas. The CSR packages are designed to address social, economic and environmental concerns of the indigenes of the Niger Delta region, arising from the oil and gas operations of the multinational oil companies. The operational activities of the oil companies over the years have led to the degradation of the Niger Delta environment with consequent loss of livelihood sources, thereby triggering protests and other violent activities in the region. The paper identified and analysed the indices of the components of the CSR (social, economic and environmental components) packages using results-based management framework to determine the impacts of the CSR projects and programmes on the people. The analysis revealed that multinational oil companies release funds from a philanthropic perspective for the execution of some social development projects/programmes, but these projects/programmes do not address the welfare and livelihood needs of the people. This means that the multinational oil companies operating in the region create an illusion of compliance with social development and responsibility rules. The paper linked these unfortunate situations (environmental degradation, insecurity, poverty, unemployment, etc) found in the region today to failure of CSR implementation due to corruption, insincerity and philanthropic approach of the oil companies and regard it as injustice to the people of Niger Delta. It therefore concluded that CSR implementation in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria is a myth and as a result recommended that Multinational oil companies should therefore incorporate the people of the Niger Delta into the oil economy by enlisting household heads into the payroll system of the multinational oil companies as well as engage sincerely in projects that will lead to the development of the region, if protests and other violent activities in the region must stop.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>: Implementation, Corporate social responsibility, Environmental Resources, Niger Delta, Multinational Oil Companies</p> Onyeka Festus Mbalisi Christiana Uzoaru Okorie Copyright (c) 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 14 1 119 132 10.4314/afrrev.v14i1.11 The Moving Image as a Panacea for Concise Analysis and Means of Ensuring Good Governance and Ameliorating Youth Restiveness in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/afrrev/article/view/195274 <p>The world is plagued with plethora of social issues generated from the complexity of modern existence. The control of sources of raw materials, exploitation, production, and trade has polarised our world. This paper looked at the Niger Delta situation from an audio-visual angle as reflected in the film ‘Krakraye’ by Gentle Jack. The Niger Delta region and her people have been neglected in terms of developmental needs in the Nigerian state, hence, the youths resort to self-identification and resource control which is the problem being stated. The aim of this paper is to present this issue bare in an audio-visual manner. The objectives are to concisely chronicle the real situation from the emergence of the military in the Nigerian scene to the present. Theoretical framework was the analytical approach to cultural studies, while the research methodology would entail the qualitative approach enmeshed with visual impressions, still photographs from the film ‘Krakraye’, and from other graphic and audio-visual sources. Findings of this study show that it is deliberate to underdevelop the Niger Delta region, keep the people poor so they will be loyal and could easily be overcome by the majority tribes, Hausa, Yoruba and Igbo who have never spoken against injustice meted to the Niger Delta communities. Contributions to knowledge is that visual presentation has shown the true plight of the Niger Delta people in visual images. Recommendations are that a naturally endowed, rich industrial environment should not be neglected for peace and development to thrive; stealing of the people’s commonwealth brings about capital flight as those in government are afraid to show their wealth in Nigeria rather, they launder and invest these monies abroad. This paper critically assessed the reach of film in exposing social anomaly as the case of the Niger Delta people, allegorically.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>: Film, Niger Delta, youth, democracy, development</p> Jariel Somieari Ikiroma-Owiye Copyright (c) 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 14 1 133 142 10.4314/afrrev.v14i1.12 A Tortuous Trajectory: Nigerian Foreign Policy under Military Rule, 1985 – 1999 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/afrrev/article/view/195275 <p>This article critically examined the complexities that abound in Nigeria’s Foreign Policy under the final three military administrations of Generals Ibrahim Babangida, Sani Abacha, and Abdulsalami Abubakar, before the transition to democratic rule in 1999. It adopted a novel approach by identifying and intricately examining a distinct pattern of contortion evinced in Nigeria’s foreign policy during this epoch. It contended that although Nigeria’s foreign policy had historically been somewhat knotty at varying points in time, this period in its foreign policy and external relations was especially marked by tortuousness and a somewhat back and forth agenda. This began in 1985 with the Babangida administration, whose foreign policy posture initially seemed commendable, only for political debacles to mar it. An exacerbation of this downslide in foreign policy occurred under the Abacha regime, whereby the country obtained pariah status among the comity of nations. Subsequently, a revitalisation occurred under General Abubakar, who deviated from what had become the status quo, reinventing Nigeria’s external image and foreign policy position through his ‘restoration campaign.’ More so, following David Gray’s behavioural theory of foreign policy, this study examined how the behavioural patterns and aspirations of a minuscule cadre of decision-makers deeply affected Nigeria’s foreign policy formulation and implementation during the period under study. The findings of this study include national interest, the crux of any foreign policy, sometimes misaligned with domestic realities. In this regard, this study demonstrated how successive Nigerian governments replicated a ‘munificent’, ‘Santa Claus’ foreign policy which alienated key local developments such as economic hardship, and contributed to the tortuousness that the country’s foreign policy experienced during an era of military dictatorships in the late twentieth century. Through its findings, the study concluded by proffering recommendations to improve the country’s foreign policy, better advance her national interests– which ought to comprise the crux of her foreign policy objectives, – and help in eschewing a recurrence of past ineptitudes and errors.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>: Foreign policy, military rule, Nigeria, behavioural theory,</p> Emmanuel Osayande Copyright (c) 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 14 1 143 154 10.4314/afrrev.v14i1.13 Democracy and Perceived Public Confidence in The Judiciary: Roles of Socio-Economy and Gender https://www.ajol.info/index.php/afrrev/article/view/195276 <p>The study investigated public perception of the judiciary as a fair plank of justice system in Nigeria democracy based on an analysis of the Enugu State Judiciary. Two hundred and sixteen (216) residents of Enugu State from 9 local government areas participated in the study. Participants comprised males and females categorized into 5 social groups - top civil servants above grade level 12, political office holders in the local&nbsp; government and the capital city; petti traders, the unemployed and the underemployed youths. Participants’ age ranged between 25 and 55 years with a mean age of 33.72 years. Data collection was aided by use of Judicial Perception Questionnaire (JPQ) developed by the researchers.Data analysis using two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) indicate significant influence of political class on perception of judiciary as a fair plank of justice system in Nigeria, F(1,212) = 8.15, p&lt;.05. The study revealed non-significant influence of gender and non-significant interaction of political class and gender on the perception of the judiciary as a fair plank of justice system in Nigeria.The results were discussed in terms of their implications for&nbsp; citizen’s attitude change and unbiased judicial reform in Enugu State and Nigeria in general.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Judiciary; Democracy; Public perception; corruption; Enugu State</p> Chiedozie Okechukwu Okafor Uzochukwu Chukwuka Chienweze Hassan Salawu Abu Nanji Rimdan Umoh Copyright (c) 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 14 1 155 165 10.4314/afrrev.v14i1.14 Bureaucratic Accountability and Public Sector Management in Nigeria: Examining the Issues, Challenges and the Way Forward https://www.ajol.info/index.php/afrrev/article/view/195277 <p>The main objective the public sector in Nigeria seeks to achieve is policy initiation, formulation and implementation for the well-being and welfare of the citizens. However, over the years, the sector has been plagued with declining service delivery and moral bankruptcy. This article within the framework of social exchange theory examined the dynamics of bureaucratic accountability, the nexus between bureaucratic accountability and public sector management in Nigeria. It is usually the public that suffers from a malfunctioning public service. Nigerian citizens look up to public servants for protection against various ills in the society and the provision of essential services. If the involvement of public servants in the political, economic and social life of the country is considered, we shall better appreciate the needed urgency in making the service accountable for its actions. It argues that for Nigeria to match forward, there is need for effective, efficient, patriotic and committed public servants, who should be accountable for their stewardship. The article recommends that unless the Nigeria public sector is revitalized and "dead woods" therein removed, Nigeria and Nigerian will continue to experience deep-seated frustrations in the often-touted desire to move the nation forward.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>: Accountability, bureaucracy, government, service delivery, patriotic</p> C.J. Igbokwe-Ibeto K.O. Osakede F. Nwobi Copyright (c) 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 14 1 166 178 10.4314/afrrev.v14i1.15 A Critical Assessment of Road Infrastructural Development in Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/afrrev/article/view/195278 <p>Road infrastructure is one of the major channels of economic development in Nigeria. This study critically examined some of the factors that affect road infrastructure development in Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria. The study made use of primary data through the use of questionnaire shared to respondents in various professions in the state. The data was analyzed using the relative significance index (RSI). The result showed that over-dependence of road development on public financing was the major factor impacting road infrastructure in Akwa-Ibom state. Also, absence of specific ministry/agency saddled with role of road infrastructure development was the least ranked factor affecting road development in the state. The study thus recommended, among others, that there should be a holistic technical evaluation and cost assessment of road projects before its inclusion into annual budgets.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>: Road, Infrastructure, economic, development, Nigeria</p> Chukwuma Onwuagana Okafor Copyright (c) 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 14 1 179 193 10.4314/afrrev.v14i1.16 The Effect of Agricultural Training on Youth Farm Entrepreneurial Attitudes: Evidence from Folk Development Colleges in Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/afrrev/article/view/195279 <p>Given the paucity of youth employment opportunities in the non-agricultural formal sector in developing countries much more needs to be done to attract youth into the agricultural sector. The main objective of this paper was to assess the influence of the agricultural training on youth farm entrepreneurial attitudes. A cross-sectional design was employed and 300 respondents were randomly selected from three Folk Development Colleges (FDCs). The data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings show that youth have favourable attitudes towards farm entrepreneurship. Furthermore, a significant difference was found in terms of farm entrepreneurial attitude across sex, age groups, college and programme studied. It is concluded that training in colleges where agricultural courses are blended with an entrepreneurship course have positive influence on youth attitude towards farm entrepreneurship. It is generally recommended that more theoretical components on the socio-economic benefits of farm entrepreneurship need to be added to the existing curriculum.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>: Courses, entrepreneurial attitude, intention, unemployment</p> Paschal Banga Nade Copyright (c) 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 14 1 194 209 10.4314/afrrev.v14i1.17 Effect of Electronic-Learning on the Academic Achievement of Basic Science Students in Bayelsa State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/afrrev/article/view/195280 <p>The study investigated the effect of electronic-learning on the academic achievement of basic science students in Yenagoa Local Government Area, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. A pretest, posttest, control group, quasi-experimental design was adopted. One hundred and four (104) JS.2 students from two government owned junior secondary schools in Yenagoa Local Government Area were purposely selected for the study. The schools were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The study lasted for five weeks. Three instruments IGELS, IGMLM and BSAT were used for the study. One research question was posed and answered using mean and deviation standard and one null hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The findings revealed that those taught with e-learning had a higher mean (72,33) than those taught with modified lecture method (50.59) with a mean difference of 21.74. E-learning had significant effect on student’s academic achievement in basic science. (f1,101=76.392; p&lt;0.05 partial eta squared=0.558), with an effect size of 55.8%. Finding showed that there was a significant difference in students’ achievement in basic science when taught with e-learning and modified lecture method; the e –learning students performing better. It was recommended that government should provide e-learning materials for schools and train the teachers to acquire the basic skills.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>: Electronic learning, IGELS, IGMLM and BSAT</p> J.B. Moses N.J. Akporehwe R. Agah Copyright (c) 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 14 1 210 216 10.4314/afrrev.v14i1.18