Physical, functional and cooking characteristics of six newly released cowpea (Vignaunguiculata [L]Walp) varieties in Ghana

  • JK Addo
  • S. Amoah
  • AM Boateng
  • H Okyere
  • H Adu-Dapaah
  • A Amoa-Owusu

Abstract

As part of the innovative platform in varietal development and biodiversity, the CSIR - Crops Research Institute has released four cowpea varieties (Hans Adua, Nketewade, Zamzam and Agyenkwa). For consumer and end-use indices there is the need therefore to evaluate these newly released cowpea varieties alongside two previously released varieties(Asomdwee and Hewale), for their proximate composition, horticultural characteristics, bulk densities, hydration behavior and cooking characteristics to elicit data to support its broadened utilization. Approved methods of the AAAC, (2000) were used in determining percent crude protein, moisture, ether extract, crude ash, and carbohydrate content which ranged from 22.41 - 25.46, 7.41 - 11.37, 1.54 - 2.44, 2.71 - 3.07 and 57.61 - 63.17 % respectively. Total energy ranged between 337.54 and 350.98 kcal. Cooking time, Water UptakeRatio, Volume Expansion Ratio, Gruel solid loss, hydration capacity and Index, Swelling capacity ranged from 25.00 - 42.50 min, 1.14 - 1.32, 2.07 - 2.29, 0.27 - 0.78 g, 0.12 - 0.17 g/seed, 0.83 - 1.01, 0.270.35 mL/seed respectively.Flours' bulk densities, true densities and porosities ranged from 0.67 0.72 g/cm3, 0.37 0.47 g/cm3 and 98.03 98.93 % respectively.Horticultural characteristics seed shapes were described as kidney, ovoid and rhomboid. Seed coat texture were smooth; seed coat colour were whitish; seed sizes ranged between 123.30 - 301.86 mm3.From the results, these cowpeavarietiescould serve as a good template and a potential functional ingredient for a lot of aqueous and non-aqueous food formulations both in food and non-food utilization.

Keywords: physico-chemical, horticultural, gruel solid loss, water uptake, bulk density.

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