Agricultural and Food Science Journal of Ghana 2020-02-10T12:01:07+00:00 Dr Haruna Braimah Open Journal Systems The <em>Agricultural and Food Science Journal of Ghana</em> publishes papers describing research, observational or experimental and critical reviews in Agriculture and Food Science. Seed quality affects postharvest characteristics of tomato fruits (<i>Solanum lycopersicum</i>) 2020-02-10T12:00:52+00:00 H.M. Bortey E Adu-Kwarteng A Aidoo Snr <p>The use of quality tomato seeds does not only ensure good germination, optimum crop establishment and yield but also guarantee good postharvest characteristics such as fruit uniformity and enhanced shelf life. The present study sought to establish the relationship between poor seed quality and some postharvest fruit quality characteristics such as fruit shapes and fruit shelf life. The percentage mean occurrence of varied fruit shapes harvested from the same farmer's field ranged from 2.4% to 47.6% in the Forest zone and from 3.3 to 21.6% in the Forest- Transition zone of Ghana. Generally, four to nine different fruit shape categories were identified across farmers' fields in both the Forest and Forest-Transition zones. The percentage weight loss after 15 days of storage under ambient condition for the flattened fruit shape was as high as 90% while the oblong shape fruit recorded 56% within the same duration. Smallholder tomato farmers are encouraged to use high quality seeds for uniform fruit</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> tomato, seed quality, postharvest, water retention</p> 2020-02-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Single and mixed starter culture fermentation of Oso (fermented seeds of <i>Cathormion altissimum</i>) 2020-02-10T12:00:54+00:00 A.A. Jolaoso T.O.S. Popoola A.M. Omemu <p>Oso is a fermented food made from spontaneous fermentation of <em>Cathormion altissimum</em> seeds. It is a local staple food of the people of Yewa in Ogun state. The lack of consistency in the product due to uncontrollable fermentation process remains a challenge, hence the objective of this study. 38 strains of micro-organisms, of which 15 Bacillus subtilis strains, 10 <em>Bacillus licheniformis</em> strains, ten <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> strains and three Leuconostoc mesenteroides involved in the spontaneous fermentation of Oso, were tested for suitability as starter cultures. Enzyme activities using the plate assay method and APIZYM kit (Biomerieux, France) were used to determine the suitability of the strains for use as starter cultures. The quality of the starter culture fermented sample was measured based on the sensory evaluation test. The toxigenic potential of the selected strains were carried out by haemolytic test on sheep blood agar. Protease activities ranged from 9.5 to 20.9 mm. Out of the 14 combinations of starters, single and mixed strains, only five of the combinations (BS, BL, BS+BL, BS+BL+LM, BS+BL+SA+LM) were accepted based on results of sensory evaluation. The five combinations of starters (BS, BL, BS+BL, BS+BL+LM, BS+BL+SA+LM) and the spontaneously fermented sample were not significantly different (P &gt; 0.05). They were rated the same and the best. The sample fermented with only the<em> Bacillus subtilis</em> and the one fermented with only <em>Bacillus licheniformis</em> were not significantly different (P &gt; 0.05). Results of the present investigation indicate the potential of single and mixed strains of micro-organisms as starter culture for the fermentation of Oso.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> starter culture, APIZYM kit, toxigenic potentials, enzyme, sensory evaluation</p> 2020-02-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Evaluation of <i>Phytophthora colocasiae</i> resistance in Taro (<i>Colocasia esculenta</i>) using leaf disc bioassay 2020-02-10T12:00:55+00:00 J Adomako <p>Taro leaf blight disease is the most destructive disease affecting taro production worldwide. Identifying resistant genotypes is the most practical means for managing the disease. In this regard, eleven taro genotypes were screened for taro leaf blight disease resistance with four isolates of <em>P. colocasiae</em> (Pc7, Pc12, Pc25 and Pc35) using leaf disc assay. Leaf discs of each genotype was inoculated with approximately 1 x 10<sup>4</sup> zoospores of the <em>P. colocasiae</em> isolates which were arranged in Completely Randomised Design (CRD) with three replications in a factorial experiment. Results of the study showed varied reactions of taro genotypes to the isolates tested. Significant differences (P&lt;0.05) in lesions size was recorded among the genotypes irrespective of isolate used. Similarly, significant genotype-isolate interactions were observed. Taro genotypes BL/SM/134 and BL/SM/10 inhibited growth of all <em>P. colocasiae</em> isolates. They recorded mean lesion sizes of 16.6 and 17.3 mm compared to 59.9 mm recorded for local genotype (control) at 5-days-post-inoculation. The local landrace (check) genotype was susceptible to all <em>P. colocasiae</em> isolates whilst 2 and 7 taro genotypes were categorized as reistant resistant and moderately resistant. It is recommended that the identified resistant genotypes (BL/SM/134 and BL/SM/10) be screened further under natural infestation to confirm results.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Disease management , Ghana, lesion size, resistance, taro leaf blight</p> 2020-02-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Microbial load on hatching eggs from farmhouse to cold room 2020-02-10T12:00:56+00:00 J.A. Hamidu F.A. Ndzibah W.M. Allotey E Eghan C Kpemlie J.O. Darko <p>This experiment was carried out to determine the concentration of microbial load, identify and isolate a specific microbe (<em>E. coli</em>) on hatching eggs from the breeder house, comparing it to subsequent storage durations in cold room. The study was conducted at the Department of Animal Science, K.N.U.S.T Kumasi, Ghana, where a total of thirty eggs were obtained from the poultry section and sent to the Microbiology Laboratory for the determination of microbes. The samples analyzed included fifteen eggs each from egg-laying nest boxes and floor of a deep litter housing covered with litter. Eggs were then stored in a cold room at 16<sup>o</sup>C and 75% RH for up to 12 days. Microbial sampling over the eggshell surfaces was conducted at various points of collection (breeder house) and 4, 8, as well as 12 days following storage. The sampling of bacteria from each treatment was done using swab sticks, which were then dipped into separate test tubes containing Peptone water. Samples were cultured on Nutrient agar for total viable bacteria population and MacConkey agar for <em>E. coli</em>. Both media used to grow bacteria were sterilized by autoclaving at a temperature of 121<sup>o</sup>C for 20 minutes before culturing. The culture was incubated at 37<sup>o</sup>C for 24 hours and total microbial count performed on all colonies identified. Citrate and Tryptone were used for a biochemical test for the identification of <em>E. coli</em> on the incubated samples. A colony counter was used for enumerating bacteria colonies. Data were analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS at P &lt; 0.05. Prevalence evaluation of the microbes showed that eggs collected from the floor had a high bacteria load as compared to eggs laid in the nest. The general bacteria load and <em>E. coli</em> load on the egg samples reduced when stored in the cold room and almost reached zero at 12 days. The <em>E. coli</em> population was higher also higher in floor eggs versus nest eggs. For food safety and reasons of chick quality, it is important that hatching eggs are stored appropriately prior to incubation and this will reduce bacteria multiplication, reduce the practice of washing dirty eggs before incubation which can affect chicks and increase post hatch mortality.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Hatching eggs, breeder house, cold room, microbial load<em>, E. coli</em></p> 2020-02-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Logistic analysis of factors and perception of smallholder rubber farmers to intercrop: a case study involving rubber and plantain intercropping system in Ghana 2020-02-10T12:00:57+00:00 E.N. Tetteh K Twum-Ampofo A Abunyewa P.P. Acheampong I Nunoo J.N. Berchie B.M. Dzomeku A.E. Adjei F Frimpong V Logah C MeLenya S Yeboah P Oteng-Darko L.D. Acheampong H Tuffour <p>Even though rubber tree (<em>Hevea brasiliensis</em>) is a major tree crop and is lucrative for small holder' farmers in Ghana, the 6 years waiting period to maturity constraints its establishment. Intercropping of rubber with food crops has been found to be a solution to this production constraint in most rubber producing countries. The objective of this study was to empirically assess farmers' perception on rubber/plantain intercropping and factors that directly affect rubber farmers' decision to intercrop rubber plantations with plantain. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 200 rubber farmers from the Central and Western regions of Ghana. Both descriptive and logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. About 83% of the rubber farmers were males. Based on the logit model analysis, gender, level of education, household size, farm size, member of association and experience in rubber farming were found to have significant influence on the adoption of rubber/plantain intercrop. Respondents see the potential adoption of rubber/plantain intercropping system as a means to improve food security, farmers' income and livelihood. Non-governmental organizations, Ghana Rubber Estates Limited (GREL) and Government should focus on strengthening its extension arm to develop more interpersonal contacts with potential rubber farmers. Policy makers, researchers and extension providers should closely work together with rubber farmers in identifying suitable rubber/plantain spacing and varieties on a case by case basis to ensure effective adoption and scaling out.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Food security, Ghana, GREL, Livelihood, Rubber and plantain intercropping</p> 2020-02-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Growth and yield performance of melon (<i>Citrullus colocynthis</i> (L.) Schrad as influenced by organic manures 2020-02-10T12:00:58+00:00 M.J. Ayeni S Arowosegbe O.E. Olofintuyi <p><em>Citrullus colocynthis</em> (L.) Schrad is an important herb known for its edible seeds rich in fat and protein. The plant is also used traditionally for the treatment of a number of ailments. Field experiments were conducted from October to December, 2015 to investigate the effects of different organic manures on the growth and yield performance of Melon at the experimental site of the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. The experimental design was a 3×4 plot factorial with treatments arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. There were thus twelve treatment combinations plus a control. The treatments were Poultry manure (PM), Cowdung (CD) and Goat manure (GM) applied 0.6, 1.2, 1.8 and 2.4 t ha<sup>-1</sup>. Plots without manure treatments were used as the control. The results obtained from the studies indicated that the vine length and the number of leaves of the plant increased proportionally with time. PM produced the maximum length at 8 weeks after planting (174.00cm at 1.8 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), which was statistically similar to those produced by CD (166.73cm at 1.2t ha<sup>-1</sup>). Also, the highest mean number of leaves plant<sup>-1</sup> was observed in PM-treated plant (93.00cm at 1.8t ha<sup>-1</sup>) which was similar to those of GM (85.33cm at 2.4 t ha<sup>-1</sup>). Application of GM at 1.8t ha<sup>-1</sup> also promoted early flowering by two days. PM outperformed the other treatments in terms of yield and yield components.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Poultry manure, growth, yield, melon</p> 2020-02-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Genetic diversity of bambara groundnut accessions from Burkina Faso using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers 2020-02-10T12:00:59+00:00 M.N. Konate H Nandkangre A Ouoba S.F. Zida M Ouedraogo N Sawadogo S Nadembega A.K. Congo M Sawadogo <p>Bambara groundnut (<em>Vigna subterranea</em> (L.) Verdc.) originated from Africa where it is an important grain legume. The knowledge of genetic variability level within a crop species is an important step towards improving it. The objective of this study was to determine the level and structure of genetic diversity of bambara groundnut from Burkina Faso. In this study, 92 bambara groundnut accessions from three climatic zones of Burkina Faso were characterized with 17 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. The results revealed a high level of polymorphism 100%) for all loci tested and a total of 161 alleles counted with an average allelic richness of 9.471 alleles per locus. The average expected heterozygosity (0.270) reflected a moderate genetic diversity within the collection. A dendrogram established by the “neighbour joining” method classified the 92 accessions into three mixed clusters. A weak genetic diversity between the clusters was also observed. These results could lead to the development of conservation strategies and the implementation of varietal breeding in Burkina Faso.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Bambara groundnut, genetic diversity, RAPD markers, Burkina Faso</p> 2020-02-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Effect of RTIMP's commercialisation of cassava on household food security in the Cape Coast Metropolis in the central region of Ghana 2020-02-10T12:01:00+00:00 K.G. Otchere K Ohene-Yankyera A Banunle E.K. Bediako <p>Root and Tuber Improvement and Marketing Programme was instituted to enhance income and food security, and to build a market-based system to ensure profitability at all levels of the root and tuber value chain. The RTIMP provided incentives to farmers to commercialise production (transform from subsistence to commercial production) thereby improving their incomes and food security. However, scientific feedback on the impact of this commercialisation programme on farmer households' food security is inadequate. The study was conducted to examine the factors that influence farmers' degree of commercialisation and determine the relationship that exists between degree of commercialisation and food security status among the agricultural households in the Cape Coast Metropolis. Random and snowballing sampling methods were used to select 50 beneficiary and 50 non-beneficiary households respectively, and data were collected using questionnaire. Data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics, Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), multiple regression and probit models. Results of the study showed that majority of the beneficiary households (76%) were food secure compared to the nonbeneficiary households (42%); beneficiaries were more commercialized than non-beneficiaries, and there was a positive association between degree of commercialisation and food security status. It was concluded therefore that RTIMP's commercialisation of cassava was playing a significant role towards improving household food security in the Cape Coast Metropolis. It was recommended that the programme should be extended to cover more farming households in order to minimize food insecurity situation in the Metropolis.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Household, food security, Commercialisation, RTIMP and Cassava</p> 2020-02-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Farmers' knowledge of the cultivation, economic and nutritional value of radish crop in Iseyin Local Government Area of Oyo State 2020-02-10T12:01:01+00:00 S.A. Tijani <p>Fruits and vegetables are important as essential building blocks of any diet. They are loaded with vitamins and minerals. Although, many fruits and vegetables are cultivated, there are yet several others (exotic) with nutritional and economic potentials which farmers' attention has not been drawn to. Meanwhile, farmers in Iseyin Local Government Area (LGA) of Oyo state have commenced cultivation of radish crop. Therefore, the study assessed rural farmers' knowledge on the nutritional and economic value of radish (<em>Raphanus sativus</em> L. Family: Brassicaceae) crop in Iseyin LGA of Oyo state in order to boost production and consumption of this vegetable among Nigerians for healthy living. A total of 105 respondents were sampled through the Snowball Technique. Data collected through interview schedule were analyzed using both descriptive (frequencies, percentages) and inferential statistics (Chi-square and PPMC). Findings revealed that the average age of respondents was 47 years, 76.2% were male, 98.1% were married and 94.3% had at least one level of formal education. Household size of the majority (81.0%) and farming experience (92.4%) ranged between 6-8 persons and 20-25 years, respectively. Of all the sampled respondents, 87.6% cultivated Daikon or Japanese radish. Most respondents' source of information was mainly through friends (96.2%). Result further showed that 66.7% and 85.7% of the respondents had favourable perception and average knowledge on radish crop, respectively. Respondents' level of education (χ<sup>2</sup>= 89.638, p ≤ 0.05), sources of information (r = 0.658, p≤ 0.05), perception (r = 0.645, p ≤ 0.05) were significantly related to knowledge on the nutritional and economic value of radish crop. Knowledge level on the nutritional and economic value of radish crop cultivation was average among 85.7% of the respondents. Thus, there is need for government, through her extension agency to provide more awareness on the nutritional and economic values of radish crop to cultivators and general public at large.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Radish crop, Nutrition, Economic value, Knowledge</p> 2020-02-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Promoting best business practices among smallholder farmers in Ghana: the case of MiDA training for FBOs in Hohoe District in the Volta Region 2020-02-10T12:01:02+00:00 S.G. Boakye K Osei M.B. Mochiah J.N. Berchie <p>This study was carried out to assess the adoption of best business practices among farmers in the Hohoe district of the Volta Region. A random sampling technique was used for selecting the respondents for the study. The total sample size of 191 respondents was randomly selected from four Farmer Based Organizations (FBOs). Data was collected through a structured interview schedule and analyzed with descriptive statistics. The study showed that majority (57.1%) of respondents were males and farmers up to 45 years constituted (60.2%) of the sample size. The study also revealed that the mean bags per acre of maize for all FBOs produced by the respondents increased from 1.3 before the training to 10.0 after the training. The farmers therefore, increased yields by as much as 87% over and above what they realized before the start of the training. The respondents further increased their access to produce markets with linkages to institutional markets. The factors influencing increased yields and respondents' greater access to produce markets were also identified to be low. Non-adoption of improved agricultural technologies and best business practices accounted for the low productivity at the start of the training. To encourage smallholder farmers to benefit from 'agriculture as business', there is the need to equip them with the capacity to keep accurate records and patronize improved agro inputs to strengthen their businesses, improve their technical skills to enhance efficiency in their routine operations, assist them to maximise sales by facilitating their access to markets and providing them with infrastructural support.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Best business practices, Farmer based organizations, improved agricultural technologies, maize, MiDA</p> 2020-02-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Phytotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of apple of sodom (<i>Calotropis procera</i> W.T) on seed germination of <i>Ischaemum afrum</i> (J.F.Gmel.) dandy using probit analysis 2020-02-10T12:01:03+00:00 A.B. Dafaallah M.A. Hasabelgabo <p>This study was carried out to investigate the phytotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of leaves, inflorescences, stems and roots of apple of Sodom (<em>Calotropis procera</em> W.T) on seed germination of <em>Ischaemum afrum</em> using probit analysis. Laboratory experiments were carried out at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Gezira, Sudan in season 2014/15. Ten concentrations of the aqueous extract of each part of apple of Sodom were prepared by sequential dilution of the stock extract (50g/l) with sterilized-distilled water to give 2.11, 4.21, 6.34, 8.42, 10.53, 12.63, 14.13, 16.84, 18.94 and 21.05 g/l. A control with sterilized-distilled water was included for comparison. Treatments were arranged in completely randomized design with four replicates. The seeds were examined for inhibition (%) in germination at three days after initial germination. Data were subjected to probit analysis procedure (P 0.5).The results showed that the aqueous extracts of all tested parts of apple of Sodom suppressed seed germination of the <em>I. afrum</em> and there was direct positive relationship between concentration (g/l) and inhibition (%). The result also revealed that the leaves aqueous extract of apple of Sodom was more toxic (LD<sub>50</sub> = 6.3 g/l) to the seeds of <em>I. afrum</em> followed by aqueous extract of inflorescences (LD<sub>50</sub> = 7.2 g/l), stems (LD<sub>50</sub> = 11.4 g/l) and roots (LD<sub>50</sub> = 12.7 g/l). The results indicated that the aqueous extracts of apple of Sodom had toxic effect to the seeds of the <em>I. afrum</em> and could offer potential for the development of alternative herbicides.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Allelopathy; Apple of Sodom; Calotropis; Ischaemum; Phytotoxic; Probit</p> 2020-02-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Effects of conventional food processing methods on the mineral and anti- nutrient composition of sunflower (<i>Helianthus annuus</i>) Seeds 2020-02-10T12:01:04+00:00 S.A. Adesina <p>This study evaluated the effects of processing on the mineral and anti-nutrient components of sunflower (<em>Helianthus annuus</em>) seeds using boiling, roasting, solvent extraction and mechanical extraction. Mineral and anti-nutrient concentrations of differently processed meal samples were determined using standard analytical procedures and parameters were subjected to statistical analysis. Mineral content analysis revealed the following concentrations: Calcium (0.17 – 0.38 mg/g), Iron (0.25 – 0.52 μg/g), Sodium (0.10 – 0.25 mg/g), Potassium (1.87 – 2.12 mg/g), Phosphorus (1.57 – 1.72 mg/g), Magnesium (0.13 - 0.37 mg/g), Manganese (0.13 – 0.15 mg/kg), Copper (0.01 – 0.04 mg/kg) and Zinc (0.09 – 0.14 mg/kg). These values were statistically different (p&lt;0.05) except for sodium and manganese. Phytochemical screening of the meal samples revealed the presence of some bioactive compounds including tannin, oxalate and phytate and their observed values were statistically different (p&lt;0.05) except for oxalate and phytate. Tannin was highest in the raw undehulled meal (0.45 mg/g) and least (0.21 mg/g) in the boiled meal. Oxalate content was least (0.11 mg/g) in the roasted and boiled meals and highest (0.15mg/g) in the raw dehulled meal. Phytate content was highest (0.16 mg/g) in the raw undehulled meal and least (0.10mg/g) in the boiled meal. Boiled sunflower seed meal had statistically (p&lt;0.05) lower values of anti-nutrients, higher percentage reductions in the levels of these anti-nutrients and appreciable amounts of macro- and micro-minerals. Therefore, in view of its considerably lower values of anti-nutrients, higher percentage reductions of anti-nutrients and appreciable amounts of minerals, the study recommends boiled sunflower seed meal as a viable alternative to soybean meal and groundnut cake in feed formulations for fish and livestock.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Sunflower seed, processing techniques, phytochemical screening, mineral content, anti-nutrients</p> 2020-02-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Growth, reproduction and survival of quail in savannah ecological zone of Ghana 2020-02-10T12:01:05+00:00 T.K. Aikins O.K. Omane Z.A. Imoro <p>This research was undertaken to ascertain the growth performance, reproduction, and survival of quails given optimal feeding and management conditions in the savannah ecological zone of Ghana. The research was designed to cover both wet and dry seasons experienced in the region. In both seasons, 50 day-old chicks were used for the experiment and growth, survival and reproductive parameters were recorded. The results showed that there was no significant difference in weekly body weights (average body weight for weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively were 6.38g, 16.00g, 39g, and 70.00g). It was observed that feed intake in both seasons increased as birds advanced in age. Overall mean age at first egg was 58.00 days and 55.50 days in wet and dry seasons, respectively. In the wet and dry seasons, hen-day egg production was 88.33 and 87.63% respectively, in the 2nd month of lay. The mean for egg number per bird for the first three months of lay was 24.46 and 24.13 in wet and dry seasons, respectively. All external egg traits studied showed no significant difference in wet and dry seasons. It was also observed that mortality rate (between hatch day and 1 week was 26% and 32%; in wet and dry seasons respectively: between week 1-2 was 2.90% and 5.88% in wet and dry seasons respectively) obtained in this present study between day one (hatch) and 1 week of age) decreased with age. In conclusion, the climate and natural conditions of the Northern Region of Ghana (guinea savanna ecological zone) are very suitable for quail rearing. It is therefore recommended that local poultry farmers should go into quail farming in this part of the country as the climatic factors support their growth.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Egg quality traits, Feed conversion, Japanese quail, Reproductive performance, Wet and dry seasons</p> 2020-02-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Analysis of food security status of farmers in Ovia North-East Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria 2020-02-10T12:01:06+00:00 J Ahmadu O.T. Okoror <p>The study assessed the food security status of farmers in Ovia North-East Local Government Area of Edo State. A simple random sampling technique was employed to sample a total of 120 farmers from the study area for the study. Data collection was achieved using structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, food security status analysis and logit regression model. The results showed that farming in the study area was dominated by males (87%) who were married (92%). They had average age, household size, farming experience and crop farm size of 45 years, 7 persons, 7 years and 1.8 ha respectively. Majority of the farmers (77%) were literate. The farmers generated income from both farming of ₦1,780,592.00 (US$5,813.04) and other non-farm sources of ₦107,874.00 (US$352.17), representing 94.28% and 5.72% of total income respectively. Their average per capita income and per capita food expenditure were ₦739.13 (US$2.41) and ₦246.48 (US$0.81) respectively. The farmers' average per capita calorie food intake was 1923.55kcal which is lower than the FAO recommended per capita food consumption of 2700kcal. Consequently, majority (86%) of them were food insecured. The logit regression result showed that age, sex and household size had negative and significant influence on the food security status of the farmers while income from farming had positive and significant effect. It was recommended that since farm income had significant and positive effect on food security, farmers should increase the proportion of their income allocated for food expenditure so as to decrease food insecurity.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Analysis, Farmers, Food consumption, Food security, Nigeria</p> 2020-02-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)