Agricultural and Food Science Journal of Ghana The <em>Agricultural and Food Science Journal of Ghana</em> publishes papers describing research, observational or experimental and critical reviews in Agriculture and Food Science. en-US Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. (Dr Haruna Braimah) (Dr HK Dapaah) Wed, 02 Jun 2021 09:02:11 +0000 OJS 60 Antimicrobial Activity of Some Allium Extracts on Microorganisms Associated With Soybean Daddawa Spoilage <p>Microorganisms associated with deterioration of Spontaneously Fermented Soybean Daddawa (SFSD) were isolated, classified and their enzyme profiles determined. The inhibitory activities of aqueous and ethanol extracts of three Alliums: garlic, onion and leek (3, 5 ad 7 % concentration) on the identified isolates were also assessed.<em> Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Lactobacillus, Candida</em> and <em>Cryptococcus spp</em>. were found to be associated with SFSD spoilage. All these isolates demonstrated activities of six to eleven different enzymes. High alkaline phosphatase and leucine arylamidase activities characterised all isolates. The esterase activities of the yeasts strains were higher than those of Bacillus and LAB strains. Extracts of all tested Allium spp. demonstrated significant (p &lt; 0.05) abilities to arrest proliferation of the isolated organisms. These activities were Allium-type and concentration-dependent, with garlic at the highest extract concentration (7%) exhibiting the most significant (p &lt; 0.05) inhibitory activity. The high levels of alkaline phosphatase, leucine arylamidase and esterase activity have implications on soybean daddawa spoilage. The results indicate that Allium spp., especially garlic, could be exploited in the preservation of soybean daddawa.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Condiment, Garlic, Leek, Onion, Preservation, Soybean daddawa</p> A.L Kolapo, T.O.S Popoola Copyright (c) Fri, 28 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Physical Properties and Consumer Perceptions of Pearl Millet Sourdough Fresh Bread <p>Bread is a common staple food in developing countries and also in many other regions of the world. Pearl millet sourdough was utilized in combination with whole-wheat flour for bread preparation. Loaf and sensorial characteristics of control bread made using wheat flour were compared with bread prepared using Pearl millet sourdough and wheat flour. Seven different formulations of the millet sour dough (90%, 80%, 70%, 60%, 50%, 40%) and 100% wheat flour were evaluated. Bread prepared with millet flour presented good loaf characteristics and sensory attributes. Consumer preference test was conducted using 50 consumers assessing the attributes of appearance, colour (crust), color (crumb), aroma, taste, sponginess, after taste and overall acceptability with a nine-point hedonic scale. The measured loaf characteristics for millet sourdough bread were colour, volume, weight and specific volume. Control sample had the highest overall acceptability score of 7.9, followed by 50% sample recording a score of 6.7 (liked moderately). The least overall acceptability score of 3.6 was recorded by 80% millet sourdough bread. Analysis of variance showed that the specific volume of the bread samples was significantly different at 95% confidence interval. However, the volume of the samples with 60% and 70% millet sourdough were not significantly different from each other. Millet sourdough could be a suitable ingredient for bread formulations, maintaining their nutritional value and sensorial quality in addition to being a gluten-free product.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Pearl millet, Pearl millet sourdough bread, loaf characteristics, gluten free, acceptability</p> C Oduro-Yeboah, M Obodai, A Obadina, J Nyako, A Padi, F Peget Copyright (c) Fri, 28 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Quantification of Total Phenolics, Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activities of Three Selected Tropical Fruits Grown In Nigeria <p>Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of tissues of three tropical fruits (pineapple, soursop and African bush mango) grown in Nigeria were determined. Samples of pineapple peels and pulp, soursop and African bush mango pulp and seeds were freeze-dried and methanolic extracts prepared using ultrasound assisted extraction method. Qualitative phytochemical screening for antioxidants was carried out in addition to quantification of total phenolics and flavonoids using Folin–Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. Antioxidant activity of the fruit tissue extracts was determined using FRAP and DPPH assays. Data obtained were analysed using ANOVA at p&lt;0.05. Qualitative screening showed the presence of phenolics, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides and carbohydrates in all the samples. Total phenolic content ranged from 61.5±0.12 mg GAE/g dw in African bush mango pulp to 550.7±0.33 mg GAE/g dw in Soursop pulp. Soursop pulp exhibited the highest flavonoids content (224.7±3.48 mg QE/g dw) while African bush mango pulp (43.1±2.91 mg QE/g dw) had the lowest. DPPH assay showed that Soursop pulp had the highest free radical inhibition (84.3%±0.26), while the lowest inhibition (52.1%±1.75) was obtained in African bush mango pulp. FRAP values ranged from 7.19±1.83 μM in African bush mango pulp to 28.59±0.18 μM in pineapple peels. The peels, seeds, and pulps of the selected tropical fruits contain substantial antioxidant activity and several bioactive substances that could serve as functional foods with the potential to be utilised in nutraceutical industries that could thereby have positive influence on the health of consumers.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Phytochemical, Pineapple, African bush mango, Soursop, Tropical fruits</p> M.O Ogunkunle, A.M Akano, T.M Kukoyi Copyright (c) Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Incidence and Aetiology of Stem End Rot and Anthracnose Diseases Affecting Soursop Fruits at Pre-Harvest and Post-Harvest Stages in Ghana <p>Soursop is increasingly becoming an important fruit crop in Ghana especially within the urban areas. A research work was carried out to identify the major diseases and their associated pathogens affecting the crop at both the pre-harvest and post-harvest stages of fruits in the country. Diseased soursop fruits of the local varieties were collected from the coastal savannah zone of Ghana, disease symptoms expression on fruits studied and the causal agents identified using morphological and molecular approaches. Two major diseases namely, stem end rot and anthracnose were identified on the fruits. Cultural characteristics of isolates and the amplification of expected PCR products using species specific primers confirmed that Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were responsible for stem end rot and anthracnose diseases respectively. Mean disease incidences of stem end rot and anthracnose at the pre harvesting stage for a period of 3 years was 25.5% and 21.4% while at the post-harvest stage were 33.4% and 65.5% respectively. Though stem end rot was found to be more damaging as the fruits infected by the causal agent could not be utilized in any way, both diseases destroy the aesthetic and marketing values of the fruits and hence deserve attention. The information obtained in this study will be very useful for any future studies of the soursop crop in Ghana.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Soursop, Stem end rot, Anthracnose, Post-harvest</p> <p><strong>Résumé</strong><br>Soursop est de plus en plus une culture fruitière importante au Ghana, en particulier dans les zones urbaines. Un travail de recherche a été effectué pour identifier les principales maladies et leurs pathogènes associés affectant la culture aux stades pré-récolte et post-récolte des fruits dans le pays. On a prélevé des fruits malades des variétés locales dans la savane côtière du Ghana, on a exprimé les symptômes de la maladie sur les fruits étudiés et on a identifié les agents causals à l'aide d'approches morphologiques et moléculaires. Deux grandes maladies, à savoir la pourriture des tiges et l'anthracnose, ont été identifiées sur les fruits. Les caractéristiques culturelles des isolats et l'amplification des produits de PCR attendus à l'aide d'amorces spécifiques à l'espèce ont confirmé que Lasiodiplodia theobromae et Colletotrichum gloeosporioides étaient responsables respectivement de la pourriture des tiges et de l'anthracnose. L'incidence moyenne de la pourriture terminale et de l'anthracnose avant la récolte pendant une période de trois ans était de 25,5 % et de 21,4 %, alors qu'elle était de 33,4 % et de 65,5 % respectivement après la récolte. Bien que la pourriture terminale de la tige se soit avérée plus dommageable que les fruits infectés par l'agent causal ne pouvaient être utilisés en aucune façon, les deux maladies détruisent les valeurs esthétiques et de commercialisation des fruits et méritent donc l'attention. Les renseignements obtenus dans le cadre de cette étude seront très utiles pour toute étude future de la culture de l'acide sulfurique.</p> <p><strong>Mots clés:</strong> Soursop, pourriture des tiges, anthracnose, post-récolte</p> J.O Honger, D Asare, J.B Lambon Copyright (c) Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Root-Knot Nematodes (<i>Meloidogyne spp.</i>) Infestation and Reproduction on Soybean (<i>Glycine max</i> L. Merrill) Treated with Varying Doses of Gamma Rays <p>A study was carried out on a root-knot nematode (RKN), naturally infested field at the Department of Agronomy, University for Development Studies, Nyankpala campus during the 2017 major cropping season. The objective was to evaluate the potential of root-knot nematodes to infest and reproduce in soybean cultivar 'Jenguma' treated with different doses of gamma rays. The experiment consisted of 5 treatments viz- soybean seeds irradiated with 150 Gy, 200 Gy, 250 Gy, 300 Gy and 0 Gy doses of gamma rays. The treatments were replicated three times in a randomized complete block design. Yield of soybean and reproduction index of RKN were determined at 10 WAP. Results of the study showed that soybean seeds irradiated with 150 Gy recorded maximum fresh and dry root weights of 24.32 g and 0.90 g respectively whilst treatment 300 Gy recorded the lowest mean fresh and dry root weights of 15.00 g and 0.80 g respectively. Plants treated with 150 Gy produced crops with heavier grains of 4.65 t/ha compared to 1.37 t/ha produced by unirradiated seeds. Seeds treated with 150 Gy had the least root galls, fewer number of second stage juveniles of root-knot nematodes and lowest reproduction index of 0.47, 44 and 8.46, respectively, compared to other treatments. The study therefore concluded that treating soybean var 'Jenjuma' with a dose of 150 Gy increased its resistance to RKN infestation and hence suggested for use in the management of root-knot nematodes in soybean production.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Gamma irradiation, root-knot nematodes, reproductive index, resistance, soybean</p> F Kankam, I.A Addai, S Larbi-Koranteng, T.A Asamane Copyright (c) Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Agrosystems and Mycorrhizae of Plantain (<i>Musa</i> AAB subgroup) in the Forest Region of Kisangani in DR Congo: Abundance and Diversity <p>Although DR Congo is the global centre of plantain diversity (Musa, AAB subgroup), the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with plantain have not yet been studied in the forest region of Kisangani. This study assessed the abundance and the diversity of AMF in plantain cultivated in different agrosystems. The study addressed also the relation between AMF diversity and plantain vigour as well as the impact of soil characteristics on AMF population. Soil samples were collected from 24 plantain fields from secondary forest, fallow and homegardens. Plantains from fallow exhibited the highest mycorrhizal root colonization followed by those from forest and homegardens. But, the rhizosphere of plantains in forest had a higher amount of AMF spores than those located in fallow and in homegarden. The mycorrhizal root colonization and the AMF spore number were higher in vigorously growing plantain plants than in non-vigorously growing plantain plants. <em>Gigasporaceae</em> (20.4 %) has a positive correlation with plantain fields in forest and in homegardens with a strong link to organic matter, organic carbon, phosphorus and sand content. <em>Glomeraceae</em> (77.5%) was related to plantain fields located in fallow and in forest where the level of silt, nitrogen and hydraulic conductivity was high. <em>Acaulosporaceae</em> (2.1%) did not show any particular correlation with any soil parameters. This study shows that plantain located in forest and fallow agrosystems, and plantain growing vigorously harbour most mycorrhizae in the forest region of Kisangani .</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Agrosystem, AMF, Kisangani, plantain</p> K Muliwambene, D Kasaka, O Onautshu, G Haesaert, R Swennen, D Dhed'a Copyright (c) Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Gene Action of Shelf-Life and other Fruit Quality Traits in a Cross Between a Regular Cultivar and <i>Alc</i> Mutant of Tomato <p>Prolonged shelf-life and good quality fruit are crucial attributes for the marketing of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L) and thus a major focus for breeding. This study was carried out to explore gene effects, heritability, heterosis and inbreeding depression for shelf-life, fruit quality and some quantitative traits of tomato using six generations derived from a cross between CSIR/CRI-P002 (P1) an adapted variety with good yield and short shelf-life, and Alc-LA3134 (P2), a ripening mutant tomato with long shelf-life but low yield. The P<sub>1</sub> , P<sub>2</sub> , F<sub>1</sub> , F<sub>2</sub> , BC<sub>1.1</sub> , BC<sub>1.2</sub> generations were subjected to generation mean analysis. Mean performance of the F was higher 1 than the mid-parent for all traits except total soluble solids (TSS). Additive and dominance variances were higher than environmental variance for all traits. Apart from shelf-life, the simple additive-dominance (three-parameter) model was inadequate for explaining the gene action for the traits. Using the six parameter model, additive, dominance and epistatic gene effects were found to be significant for most of the studied traits. Duplicate epistasis was detected for all the traits except shelf life. The fixable and non-fixable gene effects exhibited by the traits can be improved through pure line breeding and heterosis, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Keyword:</strong> Additive, Non-additive, Genetic variability, Heritability, Inbreeding depression</p> M.K Osei, A Danquah, E Danquah, E Blay, H Adu-Dapaah Copyright (c) Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Yield and Growth Performance of Drought Tolerant Maize Varieties in the Forest-Savanna Transition zone of Ghana <p>Drought stress has deleterious effects on seedling establishment, vegetative growth, photosynthesis, root growth, anthesis, anthesis-silking interval, pollination and grain formation in maize crop. Drought is a major constraint to crop production in many tropical cropping systems where irrigation use is low and rainfall distribution is erratic. As a result of this, the performance of maize (<em>Zea mays</em> L.) in the major producing areas of Ghana is below its potential yield. The study evaluated drought tolerant maize varieties in the forest transition zones of Ghana. The study was carried out at Techiman and Wenchi districts both in the Forest Savannah transition agroecology in the minor season of 2013. The objectives of the study were to determine the performance of drought tolerant maize in the drought prone areas of Ghana using researcher managed mother and farmer managed baby trial design. For each of the parameters measured such as mean grain yield and non-productive parameters, the improved varieties performed better than the local varieties probably due to a prolonged mid-season dry spell, which coincided with silking and grain filling stages and affected the performance of the non-drought tolerant varieties. Mean grain yields ranged between 5195 and 6831 kg/ha and 3679kg/ha and 5225 kg/ha for the early maturing mother and baby trials, respectively. Yields ranged from 3638 to 6203 kg/ha and 2246 kg/ha to 6073 kg/ha for medium maturing mother and baby trials, respectively. Several drought tolerant varieties were identified as promising and a strategy is needed to achieve widespread adoption of these varieties in drought prone areas of Ghana. In general, the use of drought tolerant maize is seen as a panacea in mitigating the menace of climate variability on maize productivity in Ghana.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Drought tolerance, Maize, Hybrids, Mother and Baby, Participatory</p> K Agyeman, I Osei-Bonsu, J.N Berchie, S Yeboah, L.M Tengan, P Marno, Asamoah Adjei, M Apraku Copyright (c) Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Households' Preference and Utilization for Selected Spices in Ibadan Metropolis in Oyo State, Nigeria <p>This study assessed households' preference and utilization for selected spices in Ibadan metropolis in Oyo state of Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to collect data from 150 respondents using structured questionnaire. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, likert scale and linear regression. Result showed that most of the respondents (80.67%) were females while majority were within the age range 26 and 40 with mean household size of 4 persons. A substantial proportion of the respondents (40%) consumed spices because of its taste. Onion was the most preferred spice in terms of taste, small chilli pepper was the most preferred in terms of market price and locust bean was the most preferred in terms of flavour. The likert scale revealed that onions were consumed more regularly than other selected spices. The result of the linear regression indicated that income, expenditure on food, gender, education and reason for consumption of spices have a positive significant relationship with consumption of spices. Based on the findings, it is recommended that nutrition policy in Nigeria should lay more emphasis on increasing consumers' awareness of the health benefits of the selected spices to encourage their consumption.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Households, Preference, Utilization, Spices, Regression</p> T.O Oguntoye, A.A.A Adesope, O.A Fatoki, O.V Arowolo Copyright (c) Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Isolation and Morphological Characterization of Rice Blast Pathogen in Northern Ghana <p>Rice (<em>Oryza sativa</em> L.) is the second most important cereal food crop in Ghana. Domestic production of rice yields is low and Ghana produces only 30% of local demand. Rice blast has been the main constraint limiting local rice production in Ghana. The aim of this research was to isolate and morphologically characterize rice blast pathogen isolates obtained from Upper West, Upper East and Northern Regions of Ghana. In all, twenty-seven isolates were isolated and characterized morphologically on the basis of colony characters (colony color, surface texture, aerial mycelium, margin and size of the growing mycelium) and confirmed by microscopic examination of the conidia and conidiophores of the isolates. The colony color of the 27 isolates varied greatly from grey, light grey, black with thick cottony mass, grayish with white cottony mass, greenish, white, black and to creamy. The conidia of the isolates under 40x of the light microscope showed an oval shape, narrowed apex with 2 – 3 septate with long slender branched and unbranched conidiophore.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Rice Blast, Rice, Potato Dextrose Agar, Rice Blast Isolates</p> P Maaldu, S.O Abebrese Copyright (c) Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Efficacy of some Plant Extracts for the Control of Anthracnose (<i>Colletotrichum gloeosporioides</i>) of White Yam (<i>Dioscorea rotundata</i> Poir) <p>Anthracnose is the most serious leaf and vine epiphytotic disease of yam that causes yield loss. Chemical fungicides could potentially form the basis of sustainable management strategies for anthracnose, however, the inorganic fungicides used in managing plant diseases are not degradable and may persist in the soils. Studies were conducted in vitro and in vivo to evaluate the efficacy of aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica, Jatropha curcas and Nicotiana tabacum extracts for the control of anthracnose disease of white yam (<em>Dioscorea rotundata</em> Poir). The antifungal activities of 35, 45, 65 and 75% concentrations of each of the plant extracts wasassessed in vitro on potato dextrose agar using the food poison technique. The fungitoxicity of the plant extracts against yam anthracnose disease was assessed under in vivo conditions through foliar application of 75% concentrations of each plant extract. The in vitro results showed that each plant extract inhibited significantly (P ≤ 0.05) the mycelia growth of <em>C. gloeosporioides</em> The 75% concentration of the plant extracts exhibited the best inhibitory effect considering the percentage mycelial growth it recorded. The results of the field trial revealed that each plant extract at 75% concentration significantly (P ≤ .05) reduced the incidence and severity of the anthracnose disease. The plant extracts particularly, Azadirachta indica seed extracts produced higher yield. Farmers may use aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica seed as an alternative to synthetic fungicides for the control of anthracnose disease of yam.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, disease incidence, severity, plant extracts, Dioscorea rotundata</p> D.B Pwakem, E.N.K Sowley, F Kankam Copyright (c) Wed, 02 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Traditional Methods of Incubation and Hatching of Eggs Among Indigenous Poultry Keepers in Kwara State, Nigeria <p>This study assessed the effectiveness of traditional methods of eggs incubation and hatching among indigenous poultry keepers in Kwara State, Nigeria to unravel the improvement in the techniques over time. Purposive and snowball sampling procedure were used to select 80 household local poultry keepers who were interviewed using structured questionnaire and the Key Informant Interview (KII) method for data collection. Four Local Government Areas were purposively selected while a non-probability snowball technique was used to select 80 respondents who are known for rearing indigenous chickens. Variables were appropriately measured. For example effectiveness was measured with a 4 point rating scale of Not Effective scored 1 point, Slightly Effective scored 2 points, Moderately Effective scored 3 points and Very Effective scored 4 points as the dependent variable while the independent variables were measured as either nominal, ordinal and interval scales. The results showed that poultry keepers in the study area identified natural incubation (64.0%) as the most common method of egg incubation, followed by kerosene incubator (63.4%) indigenous fabricated incubators (50%) and lastly by electric incubator (48.0%). Further results revealed that natural incubation (Mean = 2.66) was the most common method of incubation among local poultry farmers while kerosene incubation (Mean = 2.57) was ranked second with indigenous incubator (Mean = 2.19) occupying the third position in the mean ranks while electric method occupied the 4<sup>th</sup> and last position. There was a positive and significant relationship between respondents' knowledge of incubation (r = 0.547; p ≤0.01) and the effectiveness of incubation among indigenous poultry keepers. The study established that indigenous incubation with the use of natural brooding was the most effective incubation method among the indigenous poultry keepers and knowledge of incubation was very crucial to an effective incubation process. This study adds to the body of scanty knowledge on traditional poultry incubation and hatching process.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: incubation methods, local chicken, domestic chickens, small-scale poultry, village poultry.</p> B.A Ajayi, G.F Koledoye Copyright (c) Wed, 02 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Simulative Evaluation of the Response of Maize and some Dual-Purpose Legumes to Water and Nutrient Amendments <p>The study evaluated DSSAT's CERES-Maize and CROPGRO models for their effectiveness in simulating the growth of maize, groundnut, and cowpea under dynamic nutrient amendments and water management practices in field experiments. The experiments were laid-out in split-plot with water management (rainfed and irrigated) as main plots and fertilizer (organic and inorganic fertilizer) as sub-plots during the maize trial, while, water management treatment (irrigated and rainfed) was the main plot and variety as the subplot during the cowpea and groundnut trials arranged in three replications. The CERES-Maize model's RMSE-observations standard deviation ratio (RSR) for simulating maize grain yield under irrigated and rainfed were 0.1624 and 0.0317 respectively, while that for the maize biomass under irrigated and rainfed were 0.4027 and 2.1676 respectively. Also, the CROPGRO model's RSR for simulating groundnut grain yield under irrigated and rainfed were 0.1058 and 8.0592 respectively, while that for the groundnut biomass under irrigated and rainfed were 1.1154 and 0.0161 respectively. In addition, the CROPGRO model's RSR for simulating cowpea grain yield under irrigated and rainfed were 8.1625 and 0.1019 respectively, while that for the cowpea biomass under irrigated and rainfed were 0.2677 and 0.2630 respectively. From the results, it was concluded that the CERES-Maize model was more suited to effectively scope alternate management practices under maize production whereas more research is needed to be able to confirm the effectiveness of the model in our environment.<br><strong>Keywords</strong>: Crop production, CROPGRO, CERES-Maize, DSSAT</p> P Oteng-Darko, S Yeboah, E Agyei Obeng, W Amponsah, S.A Ennin, F Sarpong, E Owusu Danquah, J Adomako, L.D Acheampong, K Agyeman, A Addo-Danso Copyright (c) Wed, 02 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Gender Dimensions on the Effects of Seasonal Variations in Temperature and Rainfall on Cassava Production: A Study of Smallholder Farmers in Central Region, Ghana <p>This paper assesses the extent to which male and female cassava farmers suffer the adverse effects caused by seasonal variations in temperature and rainfall. Using a combination of cluster, stratified, and simple random sampling techniques, structured questionnaires were administered to 252 smallholder cassava farmers in the Awutu Senya District of the Central Region, Ghana. The study showed that 99% of men compared with 95% women cassava farmers experienced decreasing yields from year to year, because of seasonal variations in temperature and rainfall. Again, 86% of men and 72% of women farmers often delayed the harvesting time of cassava either because of extended drought period, or because of the delay in the onset of the rainy season. While 72% of women farmers reported that they experienced crop losses due to drought or too much rain, similar effects were experienced by 69% of men farmers. Besides, it emerged that the majority of women farmers were heavily affected by the consequences of climate variations on cassava production as compared with their men counterparts. This paper makes strong case for activities that will build the knowledge and skills-base of the farmers so that they can deal with the effects of seasonal variations in temperature and rainfall on cassava production.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> gender dimension, seasonal variation, cassava, production, smallholder farmers</p> S Mahama, S.A Manteaw, E Decker, N.A Mingle Copyright (c) Wed, 02 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000