Agrosearch https://www.ajol.info/index.php/agrosh <p><em>Agrosearch</em> aims to create an effective medium for dissemination of information on research findings in all areas of agriculture, food sciences and development. The journal publishes original articles and short communications on topics such as agronomy, crop protection, soil science, forestry, animal science, agricultural economics; extension and technology, rural development, food technology, and allied disciplines.</p><p><strong>Open Access:</strong> Please note that as of September 2013 all issues of this journal will be published as open access and are therefore free to all users.</p><p>Other websites associated with this journal:<a title="http://www.unilorin.edu.ng/ejournals/index.php/agrosearch" href="http://www.unilorin.edu.ng/ejournals/index.php/agrosearch" target="_blank"> http://www.unilorin.edu.ng/ejournals/index.php/agrosearch</a></p> Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ilorin en-US Agrosearch 1117-9996 Copyright of all published articles belong to the Journal Effect of beetroots substitution and storage on the chemical and sensory properties of wheat noodles https://www.ajol.info/index.php/agrosh/article/view/198812 <p>Beetroot consists of betalain, a natural red pigment which has desirable biological activities such as antioxidant, mineral and anti-inflammatory properties. Substitution of wheat flour with beetroot flour could improve the aesthetic and nutritional properties of the product. This study was conducted to determine the effects of beetroots substitution and storage on the chemical and sensory properties of wheat noodles. The noodles were prepared with beetroot powder of 5%, 10%, 15% and 100% wheat flour which serve as the control. Progressive decrease in lightness value was observed from 51.98 to 46.76 with increase in level of beetroot powder. The colour* value of control noodle was 1.13 and those of beetroot powder increased from 5.12 to 9.47, showing more reddish colour than the control. There were increase in redness (a*) value and decrease in lightness (L⃰) value with the increase of colouring pigments. At the third months of storage, the noodles became lighter losing the red colouration. No significant differences (p&lt;0.05) in the protein contents of the noodles. The betalain contents of the noodles increased with beetroot substitution and decreased with storage. Cooking loss and swelling power of the noodles increased with increase in beetroot powder substitution. The antioxidant potential of the noodles increased with increase in beetroot powder with 15% having the highest value (39.22%) while the value decreased with storage. The sensory result showed that the appearance of the control noodles was more preferred and accepted than others.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Noodles, Betalain, Storage, Colour, Antioxidant</p> O.A. Abiodun A. Ojo O.S. Abdulganiu O.O. Olosunde Copyright (c) 2020-08-18 2020-08-18 20 1 1 12 10.4314/agrosh.v20i1.1S Quality evaluation of <I>chinchin</I> produced from composite flours of wheat and germinated finger millet flour https://www.ajol.info/index.php/agrosh/article/view/198813 <p>Composite flour was produced from germinated finger millet and wheat and its potentials in producing nutritious chinchin, a traditional Nigerian snack was investigated. Finger millet was sorted, germinated, dried and milled into flour. Simplex Lattice Designs was used in generating different formulations (100:0, 88:12, 75:25 and 50:50) of wheat and germinated finger millet, respectively, and used to produce chinchin. The composite flour was analyzed for proximate, minerals, antinutritional and functional properties while the chinchin samples were subjected to sensory evaluation. The values obtained for moisture, protein, fat, crude fibre, ash and carbohydrate were in the ranges of 10.47 to 10.71%, 8.74 to 9.64%, 1.79 to 1.95%, 1.38 to 1.55%, 2.31 to 2.57, 73.58 to 75.31%, respectively. The loose and packed bulk density ranged from 0.61 to 0.62 g/cm<sup>3</sup> and 0.005 to 0.013 g/cm<sup>3</sup>. The calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus content of flour ranged from 0.1150 to 0.1300 mg/l, 12.033 to 13.633 mg/l, 0.158 to 0.187 mg/l, 0.389 to 0.428 mg/l and 0.271 to 0.296 mg/l, respectively. The anti-nutritional properties reduced with processing. This study has shown the potentials of composite flour from wheat and germinated finger millet in production of nutritious chinchin.</p> <p><strong>Keyword:</strong> Finger millet, wheat flour, chinchin, snacks, composite flour</p> V.F. Abioye O.A. Olodude V. Atiba I.O. Oyewo Copyright (c) 2020-08-18 2020-08-18 20 1 13 22 10.4314/agrosh.v20i1.2S Effect of Potash addition on groundnut oil yield and quality of <i>kulikuli </i>(fried groundnut cake) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/agrosh/article/view/198814 <p>Fried groundnut cake, popularly called <em>kulikuli,</em> is obtained by frying the cake obtained from groundnut oil extraction. Addition of potash during defatting of groundnut is believed to increase oil yield and improve kulikuli quality, but there is little or no scientific information explaining this. This study investigated the yield, physical and chemical properties of oil extracted from groundnut with the addition of potash at 0.16, 0.32, 0.48 and 0.64%. The proximate and sensory attributes of the <em>kulikuli</em> produced were also determined. Groundnut yield increased from 14% to 27% with increasing addition of potash, presumably due to the emulsifying properties of potash. Potash addition significantly (p &lt; 0.05) influenced the refractive indices, percentage impurity and colour of the oil samples. Oil extracted without potash had the lowest iodine value (85.12 mg/100 g), saponification value (202.2 mg KOH/g), acid value (6.46 mgKOH/g) and peroxide value (5.66 meq/Kg). The <em>kulikuli</em> had moisture in the range of 1.45 - 3.00%; carbohydrate, 20.6 - 40.4%; protein, 30.5 - 40.8%; ash, 4.45 - 5.05%; and fat, 23.5 - 30.6%. <em>Kulikuli</em> sample without potash was the most preferred based on taste and aroma while sample with 0.64% potash was the most preferred based on crunchiness, colour, breakability and overall acceptability. The study confirmed the hypothesis that potash addition during extraction of oil and production of <em>kulikuli</em> increases oil yield and some of the quality attributes of the <em>kulikuli</em>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Groundnut, potash, oil yield, kulikuli, quality attributes</p> M.A. Balogun O.R. Karim O.A. Akintayo A.T. Oyeyinka F.L. Kolawole E.E. Okereke Copyright (c) 2020-08-18 2020-08-18 20 1 23 33 10.4314/agrosh.v20i1.3S Influence of cashew steaming on the quality attributes of cashew-pawpaw mixed fruit juice https://www.ajol.info/index.php/agrosh/article/view/198816 <p>Cashew is a tree crop that is valued for its nuts, with the fleshy fruits (cashew apple) receiving little attention due to its high acidity. In this study, ascorbic acid, total solid, total soluble solid, pH, titratable acidity and microbial stability of cashew-pawpaw juice prepared by mixing varying proportions (90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50) of raw or steamed cashew and pawpaw puree were evaluated. Increased in ascorbic acid (10.20-23.96 mg/100 g), total solid (8.03-12.37%), total soluble solid (1.37-3.5%) and pH (3.68-4.65) were recorded for the cashew-pawpaw juice samples. The titratable acidity (TTA) of the juice samples decreases (0.39-0.19%) with increasing amount of pawpaw puree in the juice blends. Total yeast and total coliform were not detected in the juice samples, however, the juice had low (1 × 105 - 1.5 × 105 log10 cfu/ml) total viable count. Cashew-pawpaw juice blend prepared from 50% raw cashew juice and pawpaw puree was highly rated in terms of taste, colour, flavor and overall acceptance. In conclusion, acceptable low acid juice that is also rich in ascorbic acid can be produced from blend of raw cashew and pawpaw puree.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Cashew juice; Pawpaw puree; Physicochemical properties; Steamed cashew; Vitamin C.</p> I.F. Bolarinwa T.E. Aruna A.O. Abioye O.E. Adelakun Copyright (c) 2020-08-18 2020-08-18 20 1 34 44 10.4314/agrosh.v20i1.4S Influence of walnut on the nutritional and physicochemical properties of biscuits made from whole wheat https://www.ajol.info/index.php/agrosh/article/view/198817 <p>In this study, the influence of walnut flour in biscuit production was studied. Biscuits were made from blends of whole wheat with walnut flours and were assessed for quality attributes and storability. Walnut was blended with whole-wheat thus: B (2%:98%); C (4%:96%); D (6%:94%); E (8%:92%) and F (10%:90%), while plain whole wheat flour served as control (Sample A). The biscuits were baked in the oven operated at 180<sup>0</sup>C for 20-30 minutes, cooled, packaged, stored for eight weeks, and analysed for physicochemical, microbial and sensory properties using standard methods. The results revealed that the proximate composition of the samples during storage were as follows: protein, moisture, ash, crude-fat, crude-fibre and carbohydrate values ranged thus: (9.30-14.26%), (10.28-12.06%), (2.20-2.92%), (13.24-16.66%), (0.69-1.17%) and (53.60-61.47%) respectively, with better nutrient stability in the treated samples when compared to the control. The colour varied with increasing substitution, while the essential amino acids were higher in the walnut-supplemented samples. The microbial load of the control was higher than those of the treated samples, due to high antioxidant activity of walnut. Sensory evaluation revealed that biscuit sample having 2% walnut flour was most preferred.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Whole wheat flour; walnut; proximate composition; antioxidant properties; shelf life.</p> A.O. Dauda O.A. Abiodun O.A. Akintayo A.A. Babayeju K.O. Salami I.A. Oyekanmi Copyright (c) 2020-08-18 2020-08-18 20 1 45 58 10.4314/agrosh.v20i1.5S Potentials of moringa (<I>Moringa oleifera</I>) seed oil in enhancing the nutritional quality and stability of soybean oil https://www.ajol.info/index.php/agrosh/article/view/198818 <p>Partial hydrogenation method has been used to improve the stability of soybean oil, though it results in the production of trans-fatty acid. The objective of this study was to establish the potential of moringa oil to improve the stability and nutritional quality of soybean oil. Oil samples were extracted from sundried soybean and Moringa seeds using Soxhlet extraction techniques. Soybean powder was mixed with Moringa powder at ratio 50:50 and 70:30, and the oil was extracted afterward. The fatty acid profile of the extracted oil from these blends was studied using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS) technique. The results showed that commercial soybean oil and the blended soybean/moringa oil of ratio 50:50 and 70:30 had a polyunsaturated fatty acid of 52.70%, 22.18% and 35.73 % respectively; monounsaturated fatty acid 27.22%, 46.61% and 58.79% respectively; saturated fatty acid 19.01%, 19.02% and 17.86% respectively. Also, trans-fatty acid (0.003-0.395%) was obtained in the commercial soybean oil sample. The blended soybean/moringa oil offers a better option than the use of partially hydrogenation in commercial soybean oil.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Moringa seed oil, soybean oil, partial hydrogenation, trans-fatty acid, Oil blending.</p> Y.M. Iranloye O.O. Fapojuwo V.F. Abioye A.F. Olaniran Copyright (c) 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 20 1 59 68 10.4314/agrosh.v20i1.6S Effect of <I>Pleurotus tuberregium</I> sclerotium on chemical, antimicrobial and sensory properties of packaged tomato paste https://www.ajol.info/index.php/agrosh/article/view/198820 <p>Tomato (<em>Solanum lycopersicum</em>) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world. Due to its low shelf-life, it is processed into paste with added chemical preservatives. Pleurotus tuberregium (P.t.s) is a good source of bioactive compounds effective against microbial growth, in addition to its load of other nutrients. In this study, the physicochemical, microbial, antioxidant activity and sensory properties of packaged tomato paste supplemented with <em>Pleurotus tuberregium sclerotium</em> flour were investigated using standard methods. The tomato pastes and<em> Pleurotus tuberregium sclerotium</em> flour were mixed in ratios of 100:0, 95:5 and 90:10 after which they were stored in low-density polyethylene and plastic containers at ambient temperature. There was a haphazard decrease in the fungal count of the supplemented samples during storage. A progressive increase in antioxidant activity at different inhibition levels was observed, with the samples packaged in plastic having the highest value at 100mg/ml titration. The DPPH value range obtained for (Day 0), (Day 4) and (Day7) were 4.7 - 49.9%, 50.2 -53.8% and 50.0% - 52.2%, respectively. A slight decrease in vitamins and minerals composition of treated samples as compared to the control was evident after storage period. Moderate addition of 5 to 10% Pleurotus tuberregium sclerotium flour is effective in improving the physicochemical properties, vitamins and minerals content, antioxidant activity, sensory properties and microbial stability of the paste stored in plastic container.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Tomato paste, <em>Pleurotus tuberregium sclerotium</em>, low density polyethylene, plastic container, chemical composition</p> F.L. Kolawole M.A. Balogun O.R. Karim A.O. Muhammad H.O. Sanni-Olayiwola Copyright (c) 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 20 1 69 80 10.4314/agrosh.v20i1.7S Production of a cereal based product (<i>Ogi</i>): Influence of co-fermentation with powdered garlic and ginger on the microbiome https://www.ajol.info/index.php/agrosh/article/view/198821 <p>Many African foods undergo lactic acid fermentation; alterations of these germane microorganisms during fermentation of ogi can affect its acceptability as a weaning food. Effects of garlic and ginger on microorganisms’ load during the production of fermented cereal (<em>ogi</em>) from quality protein maize were explored. Powdered garlic and ginger individually and mixed at ratio (2 and 4%) resulted in 7 treatments. The microbial loads were enumerated, isolates identified, pH and total titratable acidity were also determined. <em>Ogi</em> with 4% garlic-2% ginger had the lowest microbial count value (19.5×107cfu/ g). <em>Ogi</em> containing 4% garlic-2% ginger had the best effect on microbial loads. 4 Lactic acid bacteria were prominent while 6 yeast isolates were identified. Garlic inhibited the growth of <em>Candida utilis, Candida mycoderma, Candida tropicalis </em>and <em>Candida krusei</em>. Combination of ginger-garlic exerted better synergistic effect and addition of garlic and ginger did not affect important microorganisms involved in the fermentation of <em>ogi</em>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Ogi, quality protein maize, sorghum, powdered garlic-ginger, co-fermentation, microbiome</p> A.F. Olaniran S.H. Abiose H.A. Adeniran S.O. Gbadamosi Y.M. Iranloye Copyright (c) 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 20 1 81 93 10.4314/agrosh.v20i1.8S Quality evaluation of sweetpotato-based complementary food https://www.ajol.info/index.php/agrosh/article/view/198824 <p>Complementary Food (CF) was developed using locally available food raw materials (millet, soybean and sweetpotato) to tackle infant malnutrition especially in rural areas. Four different samples of CF were formulated using different ratios of millet flour (MF), sweet potato flour (SPF), soybean flour (SBF); A (55% MF, 30% SPF and 15%SBF), B (50% MF, 30% SPF and 20%SBF), C (45% MF, 30% SPF and 25%SBF), and D (40% MF, 30% SPF and 30% SBF). Commercial complementary food (Nutribom) was used as control sample. The proximate and functional properties of the formulated CF were determined. The following range of values were obtained for all the complementary samples, moisture (2.98-9.05%), protein (5.06-13.19%), fat (2.50-8.71%), fibre (0.13-2.19%), ash (1.26-2.31%) and carbohydrate (55.6-57.6%). The protein, fat and fibre contents of the complementary food increased while moisture, ash and carbohydrate contents reduced with an increase in the level of SBF. The water absorption capacity, swelling power, and bulk density of the complimentary food samples ranged between 28.00 and 43.67 ml/g; 2.86 and5.22 (g/g) and 0.69and 0.81 g/ml, respectively. The functional properties of the complementary food increased when compared with the control. The complementary food blends that could be regarded as appropriate formulation based on the exhibited quality attributes evaluated was sample B which contained 50, 30 and 20% of MF, SPF and SBF, respectively. This product can serve as an alternative to commercial weaning food to prevent protein-energy malnutrition, which may help in the growth and development of children among the poor populace.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Complementary foods, functional properties, proximate properties and minerals contents</p> S.J. Olatunde O.D. Oyewole V.F. Abioye G.O. Babarinde R.O. Adetola Copyright (c) 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 20 1 94 105 10.4314/agrosh.v20i1.9S Flour functionality, chemical and sensory properties of cookies from trifoliate yam flour-soybean blends https://www.ajol.info/index.php/agrosh/article/view/198825 <p>Trifoliate yam was used to produce flour which was enriched with soybean flour at varying substitution levels and used to produce cookies. The cookies were analysed for their proximate content, nutritional content and sensory evaluation were carried out on them. The flour was analyzed for its physicochemical, properties. The results showed that enriching trifoliate yam flour with soybean flour increased the protein content. There was also an increase in the fat content with increase in the substitution level. The sensory evaluation showed that the cookie made at 20% substitution level had the highest overall acceptability score. Enrichment of trifoliate yam flour with soy flour at levels of 10% to 30% resulted in a notable increase in the protein content, which is nutritionally advantageous where many cannot afford foods that are rich in protein because of its cost.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Trifoliate yam; flour; soybean; cookies </p> Y.O. Olawuyi F. Oyetola Copyright (c) 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 20 1 106 117 10.4314/agrosh.v20i1.10S Physical, chemical and sesnory properties of flakes (<I>Gari</I>) prepared from refrigerated cassava roots https://www.ajol.info/index.php/agrosh/article/view/198827 <p>Cassava is a tropical crop that can be processed into a variety of products including flakes popularly called <em>gari. Gari</em> is a product obtained from cassava root by fermentation, but the root from which the gari is obtained spoils rapidly. Efforts have been made to extend the shelf life of the root through the use of traditional and improved storage techniques, for example storage in boxes, freezing and refrigeration. However, the quality of the products from refrigerated roots, such as gari, has not been reported. In this study, cassava roots were refrigerated for a period of three weeks and the physicochemical properties of <em>gari</em> from the stored roots were determined. With the exception of the carbohydrate content which was very similar (approx. 88%), refrigeration of cassava roots significantly (p &lt; 0.05) affected the physical and chemical properties of the resulting gari. The cyanide content decreased from 2.96 to 1.90 mg/ kg with increase in refrigeration period, while the functional properties including bulk densities and swelling power were only slightly affected. Cassava roots can be refrigerated for a period of two weeks without substantial changes in the eating quality of the resulting gari, if the storage condition is closely monitored. Future studies are required to investigate the physicochemical properties of other valuable products from refrigerated cassava roots to determine their potentials in food and non-food applications.</p> <p><strong>Keyword</strong>: Cassava; Functional; Gari; Refrigeration; Pasting; Sensory</p> S.A. Oyeyinka A.A. Adesoye J.O. Oladipo O.A. Akintayo O.J. Adediran A.A. Badmos M.A. Balogun P.K. Ojo A.A. Adeloye S.S. Diarra Copyright (c) 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 20 1 118 132 10.4314/agrosh.v20i1.11S Influence of processing methods on the quality attributes of bio-fortified sweet potato products https://www.ajol.info/index.php/agrosh/article/view/198828 <p>Bio-fortified sweet potato (BSP) is one of the crops that can be used to address the problems of vitamin A deficiency in the Sub-Saharan Africa but it’s currently being underutilized. This study seeks to evaluate the effects of different heat processing methods on the quality of products made from BSP in order to increase its utilization. Freshly harvested tubers were purchased from a Research Farm in Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (FUNAAB), Nigeria and brought to the Processing Centre, Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute (NSPRI), Ilorin. The sample was taken through some standard pre-processing operations of sorting, peeling, washing, slicing (2.11 mm), and deep frying (3 minutes) while some portions were boiled immediately after sorting with or without skin for 10–15 minutes. Each treated sample was analysed for sensory, proximate, vitamins and mineral compositions following standard methods. Results showed that fried sample had highest acceptability for aroma (7.25) and crispiness (7.00) while sample boiled without skin (15 min) was rated with least scores in colour (5.30), appearance (5.40), texture (4.95), crispiness (4.65) and overall acceptability (5.70). Protein, vitamin C, phenolics, flavonoids and reducing sugar contents were 6.53–18.52%, 10.89–76.69 mg/100 g, 0.57–3.15 mg/L, 94.64–383.91 mg/L and 43.05–237.12 g/100 g respectively while some minerals such as Na, K and Zn ranged from 8.42–17.45, 5.12–9.30 and 0.03–0.09 mg/L respectively. Different heat processing at different durations affected the sensory attributes, nutritional and mineral compositions of BSP.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Post-harvest, food security, potato, heat treatment, quality</p> P.O. Pessu S.A. Akande G.I. Abel E.K. Gbabe I.G. Adarabierin O.D. Olagunju I.S. Ayanda Copyright (c) 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 20 1 133 143 10.4314/agrosh.v20i1.12S Chemical and physico-chemical properties of orange fleshed sweet potatoes (OFSP) chips dried using solar dyers https://www.ajol.info/index.php/agrosh/article/view/198829 <p>In this study, drying technology was employed to process fresh orange fleshed sweet potatoes (OFSP) into dried slices using NSPRI improved solar tent dryer, parabolic shaped solar tent dryer in comparison with open air drying and its effect on the chemical, physico-chemical and mineral constituents of dried OFSP slices was investigated. Results showed that the dried-OFSP contained ash (3.69-4.09 %), fat (4.09-5.09 %), crude fibre (4.69-5.15 %), protein (5.87-8.28 %), carbohydrate (78.22-82.21 %), vitamin C (8.55-20.49 mg/100g), phenolics (0.1-1.28 mg/kg), flavonoids (984-145 mg/kg) and reducing sugar (35.01-82.23 g/100g). The total titratable acidity of the dried OFSP slices varied between 0.56-0.89 %, total soluble solids ranged between 5.70-7.00 °Brix while pH ranged between 4.94-6.47. Zinc, magnesium, potassium, calcium, sodium, iron were present in varying levels but aluminium, lead and cadmium were not detected in all the samples. This study therefore showed that good quality dried OFSP slices with appreciable nutrient content can be obtained from drying in NSPRI solar tent dryers especially with the use of the parabolic shaped solar tent dryer. Thus, the parabolic solar tent dryer is recommended for drying crops.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Drying technology, Orange fleshed sweet potato, NSPRI solar dyers, Physicochemical properties</p> P.O. Pessu G.I. Abel S.A. Akande I.S. Ayanda I.G. Adarabierin O.D. Olagunju E.K. Gbabe Copyright (c) 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 20 1 144 157 10.4314/agrosh.v20i1.13S Proximate composition and functional properties of composite sorghum-okara flour and sensory evaluation of local snack product (sosa) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/agrosh/article/view/198830 <p>Partial substitution of cereals with legumes has the potential to improve the nutritional content, functionality and other properties of the composite flour. This study aimed at ascertaining the effect of partially substituting sorghum flour with okara flour and also to access the acceptability of a snack product, sosa, produced from the flour blends. The blends were produced from sorghum and okara flour using the following proportions respectively; 100:0; 90:10; 80:20; 70:30; and 60:40 with 100% sorghum serving as control. Results of the proximate composition of the flour blends showed an increase in protein (8.18%-22.73%), fat (1.7%-5.53%), crude fiber (2.9%-11.55%) and ash (1.72%- 2.83%), while the carbohydrate content decreased from (73.21% to 46.55%), with the moisture content varying between (10.81% and 12.41%). Bulk densities decreased with increase in okara substitution from 1g/ml to 0.72g/ml. The water absorption capacity and oil absorption capacity increased with increase in okara substitution from 278.67ml/100g to 328ml/100g and 177.33ml/100g to 249.33ml/100g respectively. The flour blends produced can all serve as thickeners and the local snack (sosa) produced from the flour blends was favourably accepted by the panelists.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Local snacks: supplementation: sorghum-okara: composite flour.</p> P.I. Uzo-Peters S.T. Ola Copyright (c) 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 20 1 158 167 10.4314/agrosh.v20i1.14S