Mortality associated with tuberculosis/HIV co-infection among patients on TB treatment in the Limpopo province, South Africa.
Background: South Africa has a high tuberculosis burden, and Limpopo Province experienced higher than national average TB mortality rates between 1997 and 2008.
Objective: To establish factors associated with TB mortality in Limpopo Province in 2008.
Design: Retrospective study using provincial data for patients who died after commencing TB treatment between 01 January 2008 and 31 December 2008.
Results: In 2008, some 18074 patients started treatment: 15995 (88.5%) had pulmonsry TB (PTB), while 2079 (11.5%) had Extra pulmonary TB (EPTB). Overall, 2242 (12.4%) patients died, mainly PTB patients (n=1906; 85%), more males (n=1159, 51.7%), mainly those aged 25 to 54 years (n=1749, 78.0%), and new cases (1914; 85.4%). TB mortality was significantly higher among smear negative than smear positive patients (17% vs 13.8%; P<0.001), among those with EPTB compared to PTB patients (P<0.001), and among re-treatment cases (P<0.001). Only 4237 (23.4%) patients had HIV status known, with higher mortality found among HIV positive than the HIV negative patients (P<0.0001); but HIV status was not known for the majority who died (n=1685, 75.2%).
Conclusion: Higher mortality was associated with age 22-55 years; smear negativity, EPTB, HIV infection, and re-treatment. The findings call for greater integration of TB control efforts and HIV services, especially among the 22-55 year age group.
Keywords: Tuberculosis/HIV, Limpopo, South Africa
While African Health Sciences has been freely accessible online there have been questions on whether it is Open Access or not. We wish to clearly state that indeed African Health Sciences is Open Access. There are key issues regarding Open Access needing clarification for avoidance of doubt:
- 1. Henceforth, papers in African Health Sciences will be published under the CC BY (Creative Commons Attribution License) 4.0 International. See details on https://creativecomons.org/)
- 2. The copyright owners or the authors grant the 3rd party (perpetually and in advance) the right to disseminate, reproduce, or use the research papers in part or in full, format/medium as long as:
- No substantive errors are introduced in the process
- Attribution of authorship and correct citation details are given
- The referencing details are not changed.
Should the papers be reproduced in part, this must be clearly stated.
- 3. The papers will be freely and universally accessible online in an easily readable format such as XML in at least one widely recognized open access repository such as PUBMED CENTRAL.
B. ABRIDGED LICENCE AGREEMENT BETWEEN AUTHORS AND African Health Sciences
I submitted my manuscript to African Health Sciences and would like to affirm that:
1.0 I am authorized by my co-authors to enter into these arrangements.
2.0 I guarantee, on behalf of self and co-authors:
- That the paper is original, and has not been published in any other peer-reviewed journal; nor is it under consideration by other journal (s). It does not infringe existing copyright or any other person’s rights
- That we are/I am the sole author(s) of the paper and with authority to enter into this agreement. My granting rights to African Health Sciences is not in breach of any other obligation
- That the paper contains nothing unlawful, or libelous. Nor anything that would constitute a breach of contract, confidence or commitment given to secrecy, if published
- That I/we have taken care to ensure the integrity of the article.