Effect of low- intensity continuous training on lung function and cardiorespiratory fitness in both cigarette and hookah smokers.
Background: The decline in cardiorespiratory fitness and lung function was higher in smokers. Training method could mitigate some of the negative consequences of smoking among smokers unable or unwilling to quit.
Objective: To examine the effects of continuous training on lungs functional capability and cardiorespiratory fitness in smokers.
Methods: Fifteen cigarette smokers, 14 hookah smokers, and 14 nonsmokers were assigned to low-intensity continuous training (20-30 minutes of running at 40% of maximum oxygen uptake (O2max)). Lung function and cardiorespiratory fitness parameters were determined using respectively spirometer and treadmill maximal exercise test.
Results: Continuous training improved forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced expiratory flow at 50% of FVC (FEF50 %) in all participants, smokers and nonsmokers (p < 0.05). In contrast, forced vital capacity (FVC) improvement was significant only among cigarette smokers (CS) (+1.7±2.21%, p < 0.01) and hookah smokers (HS) (+1.3±1.7 %, p < 0.05). Likewise, an improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness in both smokers groups without significant changes in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) for CS group and in velocity at maximum oxygen uptake (vO2max) for HS group.
Conclusion: The low-intensity continuous training improves cardiorespiratory fitness and reduces lung function decline in both cigarette and hookah smokers. It seems to be beneficial in the prevention programs of hypertension. It could have important implications in prevention and treatment programs in smokers unable or unwilling to quit.
Keywords: Cigarette smokers; hookah smokers; pulmonary function; cardiorespiratory fitness; continuous training
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