In vivo anti-plasmodial activities and toxic impacts of lime extract of a combination of Picralima nitida, Alstonia boonei and Gongronema latifolium in mice infected with Chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium berghei.
Background: Lime extracts of powdered combination of seeds of Picralima nitida, stem bark of Alstonia boonei and leaves of Gongronema latifolium is a common remedy used in the treatment of malaria in South Western Nigeria.
Objective: To determine the antiplasmodial activities of the combined herbal extracts and its impact on the haematological, hepatological and renological parameters in mice.
Methods: The 4-day suppressive and curative tests were used to assess the antiplasmodial activities of the extract in mice infected with chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium berghei at concentration of 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 800mg/kg body weight. The haematological parameters including red blood cells, white blood cells, packed cell volume and haemoglobin count were analysed with an auto analyser. The activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined, while urea, protein and creatinine were analysed by standard procedural methods.
Results: The 4-day suppressive test revealed that the test extract achieved percentage suppression of 39.0%, 41.6% and 54.68% for the 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 800mg/kg concentration respectively. Additionally, the curative test achieved a high percentage suppression of 80.97%, 83.84% and 86.16% at the 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 800mg/kg concentration respectively. The extracts did not induce significant change on haematological parameters (P>0.05), while significant elevation in the values of the ALT and AST (P<0.05) was observed and elevation of creatinine (P<0.05) at 800mg/kg.
Conclusions: The results support the traditional use of the herbal combination in the treatment of malaria, however the liver cells were impacted by the extracts in bioassay conducted with mice.
Keywords: In vivo anti-plasmodial lime extract, Picralima nitida, Alstonia boonei, Gongronema latifolium, mice infected with chloroquine-sensitive plasmodium berghei.
While African Health Sciences has been freely accessible online there have been questions on whether it is Open Access or not. We wish to clearly state that indeed African Health Sciences is Open Access. There are key issues regarding Open Access needing clarification for avoidance of doubt:
- 1. Henceforth, papers in African Health Sciences will be published under the CC BY (Creative Commons Attribution License) 4.0 International. See details on https://creativecomons.org/)
- 2. The copyright owners or the authors grant the 3rd party (perpetually and in advance) the right to disseminate, reproduce, or use the research papers in part or in full, format/medium as long as:
- No substantive errors are introduced in the process
- Attribution of authorship and correct citation details are given
- The referencing details are not changed.
Should the papers be reproduced in part, this must be clearly stated.
- 3. The papers will be freely and universally accessible online in an easily readable format such as XML in at least one widely recognized open access repository such as PUBMED CENTRAL.
B. ABRIDGED LICENCE AGREEMENT BETWEEN AUTHORS AND African Health Sciences
I submitted my manuscript to African Health Sciences and would like to affirm that:
1.0 I am authorized by my co-authors to enter into these arrangements.
2.0 I guarantee, on behalf of self and co-authors:
- That the paper is original, and has not been published in any other peer-reviewed journal; nor is it under consideration by other journal (s). It does not infringe existing copyright or any other person’s rights
- That we are/I am the sole author(s) of the paper and with authority to enter into this agreement. My granting rights to African Health Sciences is not in breach of any other obligation
- That the paper contains nothing unlawful, or libelous. Nor anything that would constitute a breach of contract, confidence or commitment given to secrecy, if published
- That I/we have taken care to ensure the integrity of the article.
3.0 I and all co-authors, agree that the paper, if accepted for publication, shall be licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0. (see https://creativecommons.org/)