Malnutrition in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients in a teaching hospital in Southern Nigeria
Background: Malnutrition is a complication in chronic kidney disease (CKD) known to affect quality of life and prognosis although not often diagnosed. It is associated with rapid progression to end stage renal disease (ESRD) and mortality. Early identification and treatment will slow down progression to ESRD and mortality.
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of malnutrition in pre dialysis CKD patients in Southern Nigeria.
Methods: One hundred and twenty consecutive pre-dialysis CKD and 40 control subjects without CKD were studied. Data obtained from participants were demographics, body mass index (BMI), and aetiology of CKD. Indices used to assess presence of malnutrition were low BMI, hypocholesterolaemia and hypoalbuminaemia. Statistical significance was taken at 0.05 level.
Results: The mean age of the CKD subjects was 48.8±16.6years with a male: female ratio of 1.7:1. Prevalence of malnutrition in the CKD subjects was 46.7%, higher than 27.5% observed in the controls (p=0.033). Prevalence of malnutrition increased significantly across CKD stages 2 to 5 (p=0.020). It was significantly commoner in elderly patients (p=0.047) but not significantly different between males and females(p=0.188).
Conclusion: Malnutrition is common in pre-dialysis CKD patients even in early CKD stages. Prevalence of malnutrition increases with worsening kidney function and increasing age.
Keywords: Malnutrition, pre-dialysis, chronic kidney disease, Nigeria