Factors associated with gastro-duodenal disease in patients undergoing upper GI endoscopy at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana
Background: There is a high prevalence of gastro-duodenal disease in sub Saharan Africa. Peptic ulcer disease in dyspeptic patients, 24.5%, was comparable to prevalence of gastro-duodenal disease among symptomatic individuals in developed countries (12 – 25%). Limited data exists regarding its associated risk factors despite accumulating evidence indicating that gastroduodenal disease is common in Ghana.
Objectives: This study investigates risk factors associated with gastro-duodenal disease at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana.
Methods: This study utilized a cross-sectional design to consecutively recruit patients referred with upper gastro-intestinal symptoms for endoscopy. The study questionnaire was administered to study participants. Helicobacter pylori infection was confirmed by rapid-urease examination at endoscopy.
Results: Of 242 patients sampled; 64 had duodenal ulcer, 66 gastric ulcer, 27gastric cancer and 64 non-ulcer dyspepsia. Nineteen (19) had duodenal and gastric ulcer while 2 had gastric ulcer and cancer. A third (32.6%) of patients had history of NSAIDuse. H. pyloriwas associated with gastric ulcer (p=0.033) and duodenal ulcer (p=0.001). There was an increased prevalence of duodenal ulcer in H. pylori-infected patients taking NSAIDs, P=0.003.
Conclusion: H. pylori was a major risk factor for peptic ulcer disease. However, NSAID-related gastro-duodenal injury has been shown to be common in H. pylori infected patients. It highlights the need for awareness of the adverse gastro intestinal effects in a H. pylori endemic area.
Keywords: Peptic ulcer, Helicobacter, NSAIDs, endoscopy, Ghana