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Demographic and epidemiological characteristics of HIV opportunistic infections among older adults in Nigeria

Joshua O. Akinyemi, Babatunde O. Ogunbosi, Adetona S. Fayemiwo, Olubukola A. Adesina, Michael Obaro, Modupe A. Kuti, Olutosin A. Awolude, David O. Olaleye, Isaac F. Adewole

Abstract


Background: In view of the maturing HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, better understanding of its epidemiology among older adults is necessary in order to design appropriate care and treatment programmes for them.

Objectives: To describe the demographic and epidemiological characteristics of HIV opportunistic infections among newly enrolled patients aged 50 years and above in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria.

Methods: Analysis of data extracted from electronic records of 17, 312 subjects enrolled for HIV/AIDS care and treatment between January 2006 and December 2014 at the ART clinic, University College Hospital, Ibadan.

Results: Age of the patients ranged from 18 to 90 years with a mean of 36.4 years (SD= 10.3) with older adults constituting 12.0% (2075). Among older adults, about half (52.9%) were females. Majority (59.1%) were currently married while 25.9% were widowed. Prevalence of opportunistic infections was 46.6%. The commonest opportunistic infections (OIs) were: oral candidiasis (27.6%), chronic diarrhoea (23.5% and peripheral neuropathy (14.8%). Significant factors associated with opportunistic infections in older adults were: CD4 count less than 350 (OR=3.12, CI: 2.29-4.25) and hepatitis C virus co-infection (OR=2.17, CI: 1.14-4.13).

Conclusion: There is need for prompt response to the peculiar challenges associated with the emerging shift in the epidemiology of HIV and associated infections in sub-Saharan Africa.

Keywords: HIV/AIDS, older adults, epidemiological characteristics, opportunistic infections, Nigeria


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