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Lifestyle factors influencing bone health in young adult women in Saudi Arabia

Lina F. Hammad, Nada Benajiba

Abstract


Aim: To analyze risk factors leading to osteopenia and osteoporosis among young female students.

Methods: Quantitative Ultrasonography measurements were performed in the calcaneal region of 101 young Saudi females. Dietary habits, exercising and sun exposure were assessed using questionnaires. The association between the different studied factors was assessed by Pearson test and multiple linear regression model.

Results: Participants diagnosed with either osteopenia or osteoporosis (>33%.) showed significant higher soft drinks consumption, reduced exercise, limited intake of milk and dairy products, calcium and vitamin D supplementation compared to the healthy group. Multiple regression analysis showed that T-score and Z-score were negatively associated with soft drink intake and positively associated with exercising, milk and dairy products consumption, and calcium and vitamin D supplementation use (p <0.05)

Conclusion: High soft drink intake, lack of exercising and limited calcium and vitamin D supplementation are the combined lifestyle factors leading to osteopenia and osteoporosis among young Saudi females. These findings might serve as a basis of nutrition education intervention to promote healthy bones among this population.

Keywords: Lifestyle factors, osteoporosis, osteopenia, young women, Saudi Arabi


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