Anti-plasmodial and anti-inflammatory activities of cyclotide-rich extract and fraction of Oldenlandia affinis (R. & S.) D.C. (Rubiaceae)
Background: Oldenlandia affinis, commonly called ‘kalata-kalata’, a versatile plant used locally to treat malaria fever in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa was investigated for anti-plasmodial and anti-inflammatory activities.
Objective: The study was designed to evaluate the antiplasmodial as well as anti-inflammatory activities of whole extract and cyclotide-rich fraction of Oldenlandia affinis.
Method: The dichloromethane-methanol extract (ODE) of the plant, O. affinis was investigated for suppressive and curative antiplasmodial activities against Plasmodium berghei in mice. ODE and the cyclotide-rich fraction (CRF) was investigated for chronic and acute anti-inflammatory activities in rat models of inflammation. Inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators was studied in RAW264.7 macrophages.
Results: ODE exhibited significant (p<0.05) reduction in mean parasitaemia in both the suppressive and curative models of Plasmodium berghei infection in mice.Administration of ODE(100, 200, or 400 mg/kg) and CRF (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg) produced significant inhibition of rodent models of acute and chronic inflammation . This observation is supported by the significant (P<0.05) inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators, inducible nitric oxide (iNO) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and the reactive radical scavenging activities in RAW264.7 macrophages.
Conclusion: These findings could explain, at least in part, the successes reported in the use of the herb, Oldenlandia affinis in the traditional treatment of malaria fever
Keywords: Oldenlandia affinis, Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, Plasmodium berghei, pro-inflammatory mediators, parasitemia