Prevalence of autonomic dysfunction among pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients in a tertiary hospital, South East Nigeria
Background: Autonomic dysfunction (AD) has been recognized as an important contributor to the poor outcome in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Several studies have reported abnormalities in heart rate variability (HRV) among these patients.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Autonomic Dysfunction (AD) in pre-dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients in a tertiary hospital in South East Nigeria.
Methods: A cross sectional study of eighty chronic kidney disease patients attending the renal unit out-patient in the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu was carried out. Forty subjects, drawn randomly, who had no kidney disease served as control. Autonomic function was assessed with non – invasive cardiovascular tests including, measurement of resting tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension, heart rate response (HRR) to standing test, heart rate response to Vasalva manoeuvre and heart rate response to respiration.
Results: With the battery of 5 tests used to assess AD, the frequency of autonomic dysfunction in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients was 51.3% compared to 7.5% in the control group. Heart rate response to standing was the most sensitive test
to detect AD in this group of subjects.
Conclusion: AD is a common problem among pre-dialysis CKD patients in Nigeria.
Keywords: Prevalence, autonomic dysfunction, pre-dialysis.