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Red blood cell alloimmunization in multi-transfused patients with chronic kidney disease in Port Harcourt, South-South Nigeria

Esther Ifeoma Obi, Crosdale Ogho Pughikumo, Richard Ishmael Oko-jaja

Abstract


Background: Serological safety is an integral part of overall safety for blood banks.
Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and specificities of red blood cell alloimmunization in multi-transfused patients  with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Methods: A cross-sectional case-control study carried out at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital in which 186 patients with CKD were enrolled consecutively, 124 had received multiple transfusions (more than one unit of blood in one month, or at least 10 units within 3 months), while 62 had never been transfused. Antibody screen test was performed by the gel agglutination technique. RBC antibody identification was performed on the sera of those that tested positive to antibody screening test.
Results: Out of the 124 multi-transfused patients  (total of 789 transfusions), 4 (3.2%) were alloimmunised. The alloimmunised  patients received a higher mean number of 17.5 ± 12 blood units, compared to 6 ± 6 units by the non-alloimmunised multi-transfused patient (p= <0.001). Six clinically significant alloantibodies were identified with all of the alloimmunised patients forming more than one antibody. Anti-E was detected in all alloimmunised patients.
Conclusion: The prevalence of RBC alloimmunisation in multi-transfused CKD patients was 3.2% with anti-E being the most frequently identified antibody.

Keywords: Red blood cell alloimmunization, chronic kidney disease, Port Harcourt, South-south Nigeria.




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