Cytomegalovirus infection among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected individuals on highly active anti-retroviral therapy in North-Central Nigeria
Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is common among HIV-infected individuals. Its contribution to morbidity and mortality became more apparent following introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) which improved survival among HIV-infected individuals.
Objectives: This study aimed at determining the prevalence of both active and latent CMV infections among HIV-infected individuals on HAART in Ilorin, Nigeria.
Methods: A total of 360 consented HIV-1 patients were recruited for the study. About 5ml of blood and socio-demographic data were collected from each patient. Plasma from the blood was tested for anti-CMV IgM and IgG presence using ELISA.
Results: Of the 360 participants tested, 42 (11.7%) and 265 (73.6%) were respectively anti-CMV IgM and IgG antibodies positive representing active and latent infection rates respectively. Gender and age were the correlates of IgM seropositivity while age, occupation and marital status correlated with IgG seropositivity. Occupation, marital status, use of HAART and CD4+ count were not statistically associated with IgM level while gender, use of HAART and CD4+ count did not correlate with IgG level.
Conclusion: This study has demonstrated high level of latent and active CMV infection among HAART recipients in Ilorin and highlighted the need for incorporation of anti-herpes drugs in the treatment regimen.
Keywords: HIV, CMV, HAART, latent and active CMV infection.