Evaluation of resistance to temephos insecticide in Culex pipiens pipiens larvae collected from three districts of Tunisia
Background: Mosquitoes are considered as the main groups of arthropods that cause nuisance and public health problems. Objectives: Evaluation of resistance to temephos insecticide in Culex pipiens pipiens larvae collected from three dis- tricts of Tunisia.
Methods: Late third and early fourth instars larvae of Culex pipiens pipiens were collected in three localities of North- ern and Southern Tunisia. Field collected populations were tested against temephos insecticide and compared to bio- assays of a susceptible reference strain. The cross-resistance between temephos and propoxur, and the polymorphism of over-produced esterases and AChE 1 were investigated.
Results: Studied populations exhibited tolerance to temephos with low and high levels of resistance. The resistance ratio (RR50) values of temephos ranged from 1.34 to 114. Synergists and starch electrophoresis showed that the met- abolic resistances were involved in the recorded resistance. Likewise, the resistant target site (acetyl cholinesterase: AChE 1) was responsible for the recorded resistance to temephos compound in Culex pipiens pipiens.
Conclusion: The low and high resistance recorded to temephos insecticides is particularly interesting, because it leaves a range of tools useable by vector control services. However, further studies are needed to determine its spread and anticipate vector control failure where these insecticides are used.
Keywords: Culex pipiens pipiens, temephos resistance, Tunisia.