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Utility of albumin to creatinine ratio in screening for microalbuminuria among newly diagnosed diabetic patients in Uganda: a cross sectional study

Martin Muddu, Edrisa Mutebi, Isaac Ssinabulya, Samuel Kizito, Frank Mulindwa, Charles Mondo Kiiza

Abstract


Background: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with microalbuminuria among newly diagnosed diabetic patients in Mulago National Referral Hospital, Uganda.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study conducted between June 2014 and January 2015, we collected information on patients' socio-demographics, biophysical profile, blood pressure, biochemical testing and echocardiographic findings using a pre-tested questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association of several factors with microalbuminuria.

Results: Of the 175 patients recruited, males were 90(51.4%) and the mean age was 46±15 years. Majority of patients had type 2 DM 140 (80.0%) and the rest had type 1 DM 35 (20.0%). Mean glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) was 13.9±5.3%. Mean duration of diabetes was 2 months. Prevalence of microalbuminuria was 47.4 % (95% CI: 40.0%-54.9%) overall. Pregnancy was associat- ed with microalbuminuria (OR7.74[95%CI.1.01-76.47] P=0.050) while mild and moderate physical activity at work were inverse- ly associated with microalbuminuria respectively (OR0.08[95%CI0.01-0.95] P=0.046) and (OR0.07[95%CI0.01-0.77] P=0.030).

Conclusion: Prevalence of microalbuminuria was high in this group. Physical activity at work may be protective against micro- albuminuria and this calls for longitudinal studies. Early detection and management of microalbuminuria in diabetics may slow progression to overt diabetic nephropathy (DN).

Keywords: Albumin, creatinine, microalbuminuria, diabetic patients, Uganda.




AJOL African Journals Online