High risk human papillomavirus (HPV) common among a cohort of women with female genital mutilation

  • Jeremiah Ogah
  • Olatunji Kolawole
  • Daniel Awelimobor
Keywords: HPV, female genital mutilation.


Background: Nigeria accounts for 25% of cases of Female genital mutilation (FGM) worldwide, with increased incidence of cervical cancer.
Objective: This study was aimed at evaluating the relationship between FGM and HPV in a locality with high prevalence of FGM.
Methods: Papanicolaou test, DNA hybridization using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), and flow-through hybridization was done to determine the genotypic variants of the HPV. Physical examination and questionnaires were also used to ascertain presence of FGM.
Results: FGM was found among 98(49%) subjects, while 23(11.5%) had one or more genotype of HPV. Majority of the cases of HPV (78.3%) occurred in FGM subjects. Seventeen Genotypes of HPV were found among subjects with FGM consisting of 11 high risk (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 52, 56, 73, 81, 82) and 6 low risk (43, 44, 6, 26, 84, 70). A correlation (p value = 0.0052 at 95% CI) was found between FGM and HPV prevalence with a positive result for post hoc analysis. Results show the first reported case of quintuple HPV infection in a single subject in Nigeria.
Conclusion: FGM needs to be halted as it has no known health benefit yet may increase the risk for cervical cancer.

Keywords: HPV, female genital mutilation.


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eISSN: 1680-6905