Adequacy of macro and micronutrients in infants and young children’s diets in Zanzibar, Tanzania
Background: A study was conducted in Zanzibar using ProPAN software to assess nutrient adequacy of foods given to infants and children aged 6-23 months old in Zanzibar.
Methodology: The 24-hr dietary recall method embedded in ProPAN software was used to determine the adequacy of energy, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and vitamin A in foods consumed by children. Sample of 200 mothers/caretakers with children aged 6-23 months were interviewed.
Results: Most frequent foods given to infants and children were tea, bread, white rice and fish. Key nutrients such as iron, zinc and vitamin A were below the recommended levels except for vitamin C from the diets consumed by children aged 11-23 months. Energy and protein were considered to be adequate as more than 90% of the children received enough of these nutrients. Mean age of introduction of complementary foods was four months.
Conclusion: Children diets were limited in fruits and vegetables that caused micronutrients of nutritional importance such as iron, zinc and vitamin A to be supplied below recommended level. Equally, fat intake was below recommended level. Nutrition education on appropriate complementary foods should be given to caregivers. Promotion of consumption of diversified diets and locally available nutrient dense foods should be emphasized so as to achieve adequate intake of nutrients to infants and young children.
Keywords: ProPAN, children, nutrient adequacy, Zanzibar.
While African Health Sciences has been freely accessible online there have been questions on whether it is Open Access or not. We wish to clearly state that indeed African Health Sciences is Open Access. There are key issues regarding Open Access needing clarification for avoidance of doubt:
- 1. Henceforth, papers in African Health Sciences will be published under the CC BY (Creative Commons Attribution License) 4.0 International. See details on https://creativecomons.org/)
- 2. The copyright owners or the authors grant the 3rd party (perpetually and in advance) the right to disseminate, reproduce, or use the research papers in part or in full, format/medium as long as:
- No substantive errors are introduced in the process
- Attribution of authorship and correct citation details are given
- The referencing details are not changed.
Should the papers be reproduced in part, this must be clearly stated.
- 3. The papers will be freely and universally accessible online in an easily readable format such as XML in at least one widely recognized open access repository such as PUBMED CENTRAL.
B. ABRIDGED LICENCE AGREEMENT BETWEEN AUTHORS AND African Health Sciences
I submitted my manuscript to African Health Sciences and would like to affirm that:
1.0 I am authorized by my co-authors to enter into these arrangements.
2.0 I guarantee, on behalf of self and co-authors:
- That the paper is original, and has not been published in any other peer-reviewed journal; nor is it under consideration by other journal (s). It does not infringe existing copyright or any other person’s rights
- That we are/I am the sole author(s) of the paper and with authority to enter into this agreement. My granting rights to African Health Sciences is not in breach of any other obligation
- That the paper contains nothing unlawful, or libelous. Nor anything that would constitute a breach of contract, confidence or commitment given to secrecy, if published
- That I/we have taken care to ensure the integrity of the article.