Adequacy of macro and micronutrients in infants and young children’s diets in Zanzibar, Tanzania

  • Joyce Kinabo
  • Peter Mamiro
  • Akwilina Mwanri
  • Nyamizi Bundala
  • Kissa Kulwa
  • Janeth Picado
  • Julius Ntwenya
  • Aneth Nombo
  • Rehema Mzimbiri
  • Fatma Ally
  • Asha Salmini
  • Abuu Juma
  • Elizabeth Macha
  • Edith Cheung
  • John Msuya
Keywords: ProPAN, children, nutrient adequacy, Zanzibar.


Background: A study was conducted in Zanzibar using ProPAN software to assess nutrient adequacy of foods given to infants and children aged 6-23 months old in Zanzibar.
Methodology: The 24-hr dietary recall method embedded in ProPAN software was used to determine the adequacy of energy, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and vitamin A in foods consumed by children. Sample of 200 mothers/caretakers with children aged 6-23 months were interviewed.
Results: Most frequent foods given to infants and children were tea, bread, white rice and fish. Key nutrients such as iron, zinc and vitamin A were below the recommended levels except for vitamin C from the diets consumed by children aged 11-23 months. Energy and protein were considered to be adequate as more than 90% of the children received enough of these nutrients. Mean age of introduction of complementary foods was four months.
Conclusion: Children diets were limited in fruits and vegetables that caused micronutrients of nutritional importance such as iron, zinc and vitamin A to be supplied below recommended level. Equally, fat intake was below recommended level. Nutrition education on appropriate complementary foods should be given to caregivers. Promotion of consumption of diversified diets and locally available nutrient dense foods should be emphasized so as to achieve adequate intake of nutrients to infants and young children.

Keywords: ProPAN, children, nutrient adequacy, Zanzibar.


Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 1680-6905