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Comparison of heart rate response and heart rate recovery after step test among smoker and non-smoker athletes

Garyfallia Pepera
Zogka Panagiota


Background: Exercise performance depend on the ability of the cardiovascular system to respond to a wide range of met- abolic demands and physical exertion.

Objectives: To investigate the habitual smoking effects in heart rate response and heart rate recovery after step test in ath- letes.

Methods: Seventy-eight physically healthy active athletes (45 non-smokers and 33 smokers) aging 27±8years old, participat- ed in this study. All participants completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and performed the six-minute step test. Cardiovascular parameters such (resting heart rate, peak heart rate, heart rate at 1 min after testing, heart rate re- covery, recovery time, blood pressure at rest, and post-testing blood pressure) were recorded.

Results: Smoker-athletes had higher resting heart rate (76 ± 9bpm vs. 72 ± 10bpm, p<0.05), maximum heart rate (154 ± 18bpm vs. 147 ± 17bpm, p<0.05) and recovery time (7min 25sec ± 6min 31sec vs. 4min 21sec ± 4min 30sec, p<0.05) than non-smoker athletes. Scores from the IPAQ were approximately the same (Μ=7927 ± 10303, Μ= 6380 ± 4539, p<0.05).

Conclusion: Smoking was found to affect athletes' cardiovascular fitness. The change of the athletes’ heart rate recovery and recovery time contributes to the adaptation of cardiovascular function in training requirements.

Keywords: Smoking; athletes; heart rate recovery; heart rate reserve; six-minute step test.

Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 1729-0503
print ISSN: 1680-6905