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Background: Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are commonly implicated in urinary tract infections accounting for majority of the antimicrobial resistance encountered in hospitals.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae among patients in Anyigba, Nigeria.
Methods: This hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted using urine samples from 200 patients of Grimmard Catholic hospital and Maria Goretti hospital. Urine samples were processed to identify ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneu- moniae using standard microbiological techniques. Isolates were then tested against antimicrobial agents.
Results: A total of 156 bacterial isolates were recovered consisting 128 of E. coli and 28 of K. pneumoniae. Extended spec- trum beta-lactamases production was observed in 69% of E. coli and 31% of K. pneumoniae. These pathogens were resistant to 3 or more antibiotics. Of the antimicrobials tested, cefotaxime demonstrated the highest rates of resistance (100%) for both ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Fifty-four isolates of ESBL-producing E. coli showed a high level of resist- ance to amoxicillin clavulanic acid (83.3%), ciprofloxacin (83.3%), and ceftazidime (79.6%). ESBL-positive K. pneumoniae iso- lates were highly resistant to ciprofloxacin (75%), and amoxicillin clavulanic acid (83.3%). Cefoxitin (62.5%) and gentamicin (66.7%) showed substantially higher rates of resistance against these isolates while all 24 strains were resistant to imipenem.
Conclusion: This study indicated the prevalence of ESBL-positive Gram-negative pathogens in these study sites and also demonstrated their resistance to a few antibiotics. This highlights the need for new antimicrobials that are potent and im- proved policy on use of antibiotics.
Keywords: Antibiotic resistance; ESBLs; Escherichia coli; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Anyigba.