Main Article Content
In the past years, numerous new fatal infections have emerged, including Ebola, Nipah, and Zika viruses, as well as coronaviruses. Recently, infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have emerged in China, and were then transmitted all over the world, causing the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, which is transmitted at a higher rate than other diseases caused by coronaviruses. At the time of writing this review, COVID-19 is not contained in most countries in spite of quarantine, physical distancing, and enhanced hygiene measures. In this review, I address different methods for passive and active immunization against this virus, which is known to cause fatal respiratory disease, including natural passive immunization by breast milk, natural active immunization by herd immunization, artificial passive immunization by convalescent plasma or monoclonal antibodies, and artificial active immunization by vaccination. I hope this review will help design a prophylactic approach against outbreaks and pandemics of related coronaviruses in the future.
Keywords: Breastfeeding; COVID-19; herd immunity; monoclonal antibodies; SARS-CoV; vaccine.