Haematological profile abnormalities; and its relationship with severity and outcome of COVID-19 infection
Background: Corona virus disease (Covid-19) caused by corona virus (SARS Cov-2) has affected millions of people around the world. Many diagnostic modalities have been tested but the blood complete picture remains the initial and most easily accessible investigation in Covid-19.
Objectives: The objective of this study was to find out the haematological abnormalities in relation to Covid-19 severity and outcome.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out from April 2020 to July 2020. One--hundred and fifty polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed Covid-19 patients were inducted by random sampling. Haematological profile at admission was recorded. Data thus obtained was analyzed with respect to Covid-19 severity and outcome. The data was entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19.
Results: Out of a total of 150 patients included in the study, 77(51.3%) patients had mild disease at the time of admission, 42 (28%) had moderate disease while 31 (20.7%) had critical disease at the time of admission. Medians (interquartile range) of total leucocyte count (TLC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, neutrophils to lymphocytes ratio (NLR), platelets to lymphocytes ratio (PLR), neutrophils to monocyte ratio (NMR), monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR) were 8.11 (IQR=4.88), 5.95 (IQR=4.58), 1.66 (IQR=1.10), 3.48 (IQR=4.20), 146.24 (IQR=130.75), 18.87 (IQR=14.07), 0.16 (IQR=0.13). Median NLR was higher in patients with critical illness
11.23 (IQR=10.70) as compared to those with stable 2.51 (IQR=1.77) and moderate 3.22 (IQR=3.60) disease (p< 0.000). Similarly TLC (p< 0.000), neutrophils (p< 0.000), lymphocytes (p< 0.000), NLR (p< 0.000), PLR (p< 0.000, p=0.001), MLR (p< 0.000), NMR (p< 0.000) had significant relationship with the severity and outcome of Covid-19 infection.
Conclusion: Many haematological parameters are significantly different and can be used to predict the severity and outcome of Covid-19 infection.
Keywords: COVID-19; hematology; corona virus; outcome.
While African Health Sciences has been freely accessible online there have been questions on whether it is Open Access or not. We wish to clearly state that indeed African Health Sciences is Open Access. There are key issues regarding Open Access needing clarification for avoidance of doubt:
- 1. Henceforth, papers in African Health Sciences will be published under the CC BY (Creative Commons Attribution License) 4.0 International. See details on https://creativecomons.org/)
- 2. The copyright owners or the authors grant the 3rd party (perpetually and in advance) the right to disseminate, reproduce, or use the research papers in part or in full, format/medium as long as:
- No substantive errors are introduced in the process
- Attribution of authorship and correct citation details are given
- The referencing details are not changed.
Should the papers be reproduced in part, this must be clearly stated.
- 3. The papers will be freely and universally accessible online in an easily readable format such as XML in at least one widely recognized open access repository such as PUBMED CENTRAL.
B. ABRIDGED LICENCE AGREEMENT BETWEEN AUTHORS AND African Health Sciences
I submitted my manuscript to African Health Sciences and would like to affirm that:
1.0 I am authorized by my co-authors to enter into these arrangements.
2.0 I guarantee, on behalf of self and co-authors:
- That the paper is original, and has not been published in any other peer-reviewed journal; nor is it under consideration by other journal (s). It does not infringe existing copyright or any other person’s rights
- That we are/I am the sole author(s) of the paper and with authority to enter into this agreement. My granting rights to African Health Sciences is not in breach of any other obligation
- That the paper contains nothing unlawful, or libelous. Nor anything that would constitute a breach of contract, confidence or commitment given to secrecy, if published
- That I/we have taken care to ensure the integrity of the article.