Haematological profile abnormalities; and its relationship with severity and outcome of COVID-19 infection

  • Noman Ahmed Chaudhary
  • Muhammad Khurram
  • Tahira Yasmin
  • Abdullah Sadiq
  • Javaria Malik
  • Qaiser Aziz
  • Muddesir Nazar
  • Muhammad Shahzad Manzoor
  • Muhammad Mujeeb Khan
Keywords: COVID-19; hematology; corona virus; outcome.


Background: Corona virus disease (Covid-19) caused by corona virus (SARS Cov-2) has affected millions of people around the world. Many diagnostic modalities have been tested but the blood complete picture remains the initial and most easily accessible investigation in Covid-19.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to find out the haematological abnormalities in relation to Covid-19 severity and outcome.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out from April 2020 to July 2020. One--hundred and fifty polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed Covid-19 patients were inducted by random sampling. Haematological profile at admission was recorded. Data thus obtained was analyzed with respect to Covid-19 severity and outcome. The data was entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19.

Results: Out of a total of 150 patients included in the study, 77(51.3%) patients had mild disease at the time of admission, 42 (28%) had moderate disease while 31 (20.7%) had critical disease at the time of admission. Medians (interquartile range) of total leucocyte count (TLC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, neutrophils to lymphocytes ratio (NLR), platelets to lymphocytes ratio (PLR), neutrophils to monocyte ratio (NMR), monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR) were 8.11 (IQR=4.88), 5.95 (IQR=4.58), 1.66 (IQR=1.10), 3.48 (IQR=4.20), 146.24 (IQR=130.75), 18.87 (IQR=14.07), 0.16 (IQR=0.13). Median NLR was higher in patients with critical illness
11.23 (IQR=10.70) as compared to those with stable 2.51 (IQR=1.77) and moderate 3.22 (IQR=3.60) disease (p< 0.000). Similarly TLC (p< 0.000), neutrophils (p< 0.000), lymphocytes (p< 0.000), NLR (p< 0.000), PLR (p< 0.000, p=0.001), MLR (p< 0.000), NMR (p< 0.000) had significant relationship with the severity and outcome of Covid-19 infection.

Conclusion: Many haematological parameters are significantly different and can be used to predict the severity and outcome of Covid-19 infection.

Keywords: COVID-19; hematology; corona virus; outcome.


Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 1729-0503
print ISSN: 1680-6905