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Comparative genomics of spike, envelope, and nucleocapsid protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2

Sufyan Sohail Khan
Anwar Ullah


Background: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) upsurge sprang up in Wuhan, China, in late December 2019.

Objectives: Due to the exceptionally high mutation frequency, comparative genomics of viruses isolated throughout time and in various geographical locations are crucial. To better understand how SARS-CoV-2 heterogeneity has changed around the globe, this research was conducted.

Methods: Nucleotide and protein sequences of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and bat SARS-like CoV were extracted from the NCBI Virus database. The Wuhan SARS-CoV-2 variant was used as a reference. Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Study performed the phylogenetic analysis, while the Genome Detective Coronavirus Typing Tool performed the mutational analysis.

Results: The evolutionary research has revealed that bats are the primary host for coronavirus evolution and the origin of the formation of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. Numerous mutations have been discovered in the spike, envelope, and nucleocapsid protein.

Conclusions: The current research findings may have an implication that facilitates the development of prospective immunization candidates/small pharmacological compounds targeting COVID-19.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; pandemic; comparative genomics; spike protein; envelope protein; nucleocapsid protein.

Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 1729-0503
print ISSN: 1680-6905