Antimicrobial activity against gram negative bacilli from Yaounde Central Hospital, Cameroon

  • J Gangoue-Pieboji
  • S Koulla-Shiro
  • P Ngassam
  • D Adiogo
  • P Ndumbe
Keywords: antimicrobial agents, resistance, Gram-negative bacilli, bacteria susceptibility testing, Cameroon.

Abstract



Background: Antimicrobial resistance among bacteria pathogens is a world-wide issue. The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of common pathogenic bacteria are essential to guide empirical and pathogen-specific therapy; unfortunately, these data are scarse in Cameroon. Objective: To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Gram-negative bacilli isolated in Yaounde Central Hospital Laboratory of Bacteriology. Methods: Gram-negative bacilli isolates (n = 505), obtained from a wide range of clinical specimens (urine, pus and blood) in Yaoundé Central Hospital Laboratory of Bacteriology between March 1995 and April 1998, were evaluated for resistance to antibiotics (amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, piperacillin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, aztreonam, imipenem, gentamicin, tobramicin, ofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results: High rates of resistance were found in most of the bacteria studied. Resistance to all isolates was mostly observed for amoxicillin (87%), piperacillin (74%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (73%). Susceptibilities to third generation cephalosporins (cefotaxime, ceftazidime) and monobactame (aztreonam) were = 91% for Escherichia coli, = 71% for Klebsiella spp., = 98% for Proteus mirabilis, = 50% for Enterobacter spp. and Citrobacter spp. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was less susceptible to cefotaxime (2%) and aztreonam (33%), and highly susceptible to ceftazidime (72%) whereas Acinetobacter baumannii was highly resistant to aztreonam (100%), to cefotaxime (96%) and cetazidime (62%). Imipenem (98%) was the most active antibiotic followed by the ofloxacine (88%). Susceptibility of all isolates to gentamicin was 67%. Conclusion: These results indicate that surveillance to antimicrobial resistance in Cameroon is necessary to monitor microbial trends, antimicrobial resistance pattern, and provide information for choosing empirical or direct therapy to physicians.

Keywords: antimicrobial agents, resistance, Gram-negative bacilli, bacteria susceptibility testing, Cameroon.

> African Health Sciences Vol. 6 (4) 2006: pp. 232-235
Published
2007-07-13
Section
Articles

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eISSN: 1680-6905