Fluconazole resistant opportunistic oro-pharyngeal candida and non-candida yeast-like isolates from HIV infected patients attending ARV clinics in Lagos, Nigeria.
Background: Oro-Pharyngeal Candidiasis (OPC) continues to be considered the most common opportunistic fungal disease in HIV/AIDS patients globally. Azole antifungal agent has become important in the treatment of mucosal candidiasis in HIV patients. Presently, antifungal drug resistance is fast becoming a major problem particularly with the immune depleted population. Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the: existence of OPC, species distribution fluconazole susceptibility profile of yeast cells isolated from oral specimens of HIV/AIDS patients from Lagos Nigeria, between Oct. 2004 and June, 2005. Methodology: The venous blood samples were screened for HIV antibodies using the Cappillus HIV I and II test kit (Trinity Biotech Plc UK), and Genie II HIV I and II EIA kit (Bio-Rad France). The positive results were subsequently confirmed at the laboratory attached to each of the clinics, using the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health approved algorithm. The samples from 213 (108 females and 105 males) HIV positive patients were plated onto SD agar. The isolates were identified by morphotyping, microscopy and speciated using germ tube test and battery of biochemical sugar fermentation and assimilation tests. Fluconazole agar diffusion susceptibility testing was carried out on each isolates. Results: Seventy-four (34.7%) isolates were recovered including one person with double isolates. Only 70(94.6%) of the isolates could be adequately speciated. Candida albicans 30 (40.5%) was the most frequently isolated species, the rest were non-albicans species, with the frequency of C. tropicalis › C. Krusei › C. glabrata and C. neoformans for species for species having up to 4 isolates. Four (30.8%) out of 13 isolates of C. tropicalis showed germ tube formation. While one C. albicans was germ-tube negative. Out of the 74 isolates tested for fluconazole sensitivity, 58(78.4%) were sensitive, MIC d” 8μg/ml, 9(12.1%) were susceptible Dose Dependant (SDD), MIC 16-32 μg/ml and 7(9.5%) were resistant, MICs e” 64μg/ml. Among the C. albicans isolates, 26(86.7%) were sensitive to fluconazole. The rank of susceptibility was C. albicans > C. tropicalis > C. Krusei for the most prevalent species. Conclusion: We conclude that fluconazole resistant strains of oro-pharyngeal yeast-like cells exist in about 9.5% of HIV/AIDS patients with the above stated species distribution. We therefore, highlight the need for routine antifungal susceptibility testing on HIV patients with cases of initial or repeat episodes of OPC.
Keywords: Oropharyngeal Candida (yeast-like cells), HIV/AIDS and Fluconazole Resistance.
African Health Sciences Vol. 8 (3) 2008: pp. 142-148
While African Health Sciences has been freely accessible online there have been questions on whether it is Open Access or not. We wish to clearly state that indeed African Health Sciences is Open Access. There are key issues regarding Open Access needing clarification for avoidance of doubt:
- 1. Henceforth, papers in African Health Sciences will be published under the CC BY (Creative Commons Attribution License) 4.0 International. See details on https://creativecomons.org/)
- 2. The copyright owners or the authors grant the 3rd party (perpetually and in advance) the right to disseminate, reproduce, or use the research papers in part or in full, format/medium as long as:
- No substantive errors are introduced in the process
- Attribution of authorship and correct citation details are given
- The referencing details are not changed.
Should the papers be reproduced in part, this must be clearly stated.
- 3. The papers will be freely and universally accessible online in an easily readable format such as XML in at least one widely recognized open access repository such as PUBMED CENTRAL.
B. ABRIDGED LICENCE AGREEMENT BETWEEN AUTHORS AND African Health Sciences
I submitted my manuscript to African Health Sciences and would like to affirm that:
1.0 I am authorized by my co-authors to enter into these arrangements.
2.0 I guarantee, on behalf of self and co-authors:
- That the paper is original, and has not been published in any other peer-reviewed journal; nor is it under consideration by other journal (s). It does not infringe existing copyright or any other person’s rights
- That we are/I am the sole author(s) of the paper and with authority to enter into this agreement. My granting rights to African Health Sciences is not in breach of any other obligation
- That the paper contains nothing unlawful, or libelous. Nor anything that would constitute a breach of contract, confidence or commitment given to secrecy, if published
- That I/we have taken care to ensure the integrity of the article.