Asymptomatic bacteriuria in diabetes mellitus patients in Southwest Cameroon
Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is common in diabetics and predisposes these patients to more severe urinary tract infections (UTIs). Reports on the prevalence and etiology of ASB especially in developing countries appear contradictory.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence and etiology of ASB and antimicrobial resistance of urinary isolates in diabetics and non-diabetics.
Methods: The study involved a total of 265 participants including 154 diabetes mellitus patients and 111 non-diabetics in Southwest Cameroon. Mid-stream urine was collected from consented subjects and each sample tested using the dipstick, microscopy and culture techniques. Isolates were identified using standard biochemical tests.
Results: ASB was detected in 33.2% of participants; 38.3% in diabetics and 26.1% in non-diabetics (P = 0.03). Coagulasenegative staphylococci (CNS) were the predominant organisms (36.3%) isolated from urine in both diabetics and nondiabetics. Other isolates included Klebsiella sp (15.9%), Candida sp (13.7%), E. coli (10.8%) and Serratia sp (10.8%). Candida sp was isolated more from diabetics than non-diabetics (P = 0.01). There was no significant difference in resistance between diabetics and non-diabetics (P > 0.05). Most isolates showed multiple resistance and ciprofloxacin was the most active ingredient against bacterial uropathogens.
Conclusion: The study revealed a high prevalence of ASB in diabetics than in non-diabetics. A change in the aetiologic spectrum was observed with Staphylococcus sp accounting for majority of ASB. Most isolates showed multiple resistance in both diabetics and non-diabetics; therefore the need to speed up sensitization against antibiotic abuse in Southwest Cameroon.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, prevalence, asymptomatic bacteriuria, antimicrobial resistance