Recent advances in childhood diabetes mellitus
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a syndrome characterized by disturbed metabolism of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. It is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin. It presents with very different medical and psychosocial issues in children.
Epidemiological studies indicate that there is gradual but steady increase in the incidence of both type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in both developed and developing countries. The manifestations, therapy goals, clinical course, susceptibility to complications of diabetes differ among childhood cases. T1DM accounts for the majority of cases of diabetes in children. Diabetic ketoacidosis may be the initial presentation of T1DM in many children particularly in Africa probably due to low level of
The focus of this review on T1DM is to provide an overview of the major advances in the aetiology, pathogenesis, and clinical management of newly diagnosed children and their subsequent management with the aim of ensuring optimal growth and development as well as preventing acute and chronic complications. The advances in insulin therapy and regimens and the presentation and management of diabetic ketoacidosis are discussed. The prospects for the cure of the disease are also highlighted in this review.
Key words : Childhood diabetes, glucose monitoring, insulin therapy, DKA, advances