Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine <p>The <em>Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine</em> is a peer-reviewed, international, medical journal published bi-annually by the Association of Resident Doctors, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. The journal has a vision to regularly publish first-class and widely cited articles in different specialities of medical sciences and related subjects. It welcomes contributions from all fields of medicine including medical technology, as well as economic, social and ethical issues that are related to the practice of medicine, especially in developing countries of the world. The journal publishes review and original articles, commentaries, book reviews, meeting reports, addresses and speeches, correspondences etc.</p> <p>Other websites related to this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a> and&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> </a></p> en-US Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine 1597-1627 <span style="font-family: Garamond; font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: Garamond; font-size: small;"><p>On acceptance, the copyright of the paper will be vested in the Journal and Publisher.</p></span></span> Editorial: Elimination of industrialized trans-fatty acids from Nigerian meals – an urgent need for policy adoption, implementation, and public education <p>No Abstract.</p> O.F. Fagbule Copyright (c) 2022-10-02 2022-10-02 19 2 101 102 Knowledge of health workers on cholera management in Oyo State: Results of a training intervention <p><em>Introduction:</em> Primary Health Care (PHC) workers are usually the frontline health workers involved in disseminating health education to the community and implementing cholera prevention and management guidelines. Given that inadequate health worker perforance has been a problem in resource-limited settings such as Nigeria and poor health worker knowledge has been implicated in poor health status in developing nations, continuous training of health workers to improve their knowledge has been recommended to improve health outcomes.<br><em>Objectives:</em> This study seeks to ascertain the level of improvement in the knowledge of health workers on cholera, if any, after one of such interventions was carried out in Oyo State. Similarly, the study seeks to discern the specific domains of knowledge on cholera, if any, which were significantly affected by the intervention.<br><em>Methods:</em> The research was conducted utilizing a pre-post study design to recruit PHC health workers from four local government areas of Oyo State between October and November 2016. Baseline and endline data were collected at both intervention and control sites using a self-administered questionnaire with sections eliciting responses to questions on general knowledge of symptoms of cholera, prevention methods, knowledge and practice of safety procedures health workers. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were used to present the data and test for statistical associations between categorical variables at 5% respectively.<br><em>Results:</em> A total of 542 health workers divided into 2 groups (intervention and control), were interviewed at baseline and at endline. At baseline, the 40-49 years age group was the most represented in the intervention arm (40.0%), the 30-39 years age group was the most representedin the control arm (34.2%). At baseline, only 35.2% of health workers in the intervention sites had good knowledge on cholera. This figure was increased to 52.7% after the intervention. This difference in proportions was also statistically significant (p=0.004). In the control sites, the opposite was observed as the proportion of health workers with good knowledge on cholera slightly reduced from 47.2% to 43.6%. This difference was however not statistically significant (p=0.563).<br><em>Conclusion:</em> The results from the evaluation of the intervention show that the training significantly improved the overall knowledge of health workers. However, future training interventions can be aimed at improving knowledge of health workers on alert threshold of cholera. In addition, continuous education programs on disease and surveillance and notification should be planned for PHC workers to improve their knowledge.</p> O.T. Bankole G. Abbass T.A. Obembe I.O. Ajayi Copyright (c) 2022-10-02 2022-10-02 19 2 103 111 Prevalence and predictors of cigarette smoking and alcohol use among secondary school students in Nigeria <p><em>Background:</em> Cigarette and alcohol use are the most common causes of noncommunicable diseases. Studies related to cigarette and alcohol use among Nigerian adolescents have shown increases in the habits and require urgent intervention. Nationally representative data is needed to develop effective national policies and interventions, but this is lacking. Hence, this study aimed to provide nationally representative empiric information about cigarette and alcohol use prevalence and predictors among Nigerian secondary school students.<br><em>Methods:</em> This study included 2,530 Nigerian students in Nigeria from five of the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information about the participants’ sociodemographic and school-based characteristics, cigarette and alcohol use status, and harm perception of tobacco and alcohol use. Data were analysed with SPSS version 25 at p&lt;0.05.<br><em>Results:</em> Participants’ mean age (±SD) was 16.34 (±2.0) years. The prevalences (95%CI) for ever-cigarette and current-cigarette smoking were 11.1% (95%CI:9.9- 12.4) and 8.4% (95%CI:7.3-9.5), respectively. While 21.0% (95%CI:19.4-22.7) and 15.6% (14.2-17.1) were the prevalences for lifetime and current alcohol use, respectively. The predictors of current cigarette smoking were studying in northern- Nigeria (aOR:1.94;95%CI:1.10–3.44), attending private-schools (aOR:1.56;95%CI:1. 03–2.38), boarding-student (aOR:1.75;95% CI:1.15–2.69), male-gender (aOR:3.03; 95%CI:1.80–5.10), current alcohol use (aOR:12.50;95%CI:8.70–18.18), having no (aOR:2.59;95%CI:1.58–4.26) or low tobacco harm perception (aOR:2.04;95%CI:1.18–3.53). The predictors of current alcohol use were male (aOR:1.32; 95%CI:1.01– 1.72) and current cigarette smoking (aOR:12.5;95%CI:8.77–17.86).<br><em>Conclusion:</em> The prevalences of cigarette and alcohol use were high among Nigerian secondary school students, and both habits were strongly associated. Their predictors were school-related factors, sociocultural characteristics, and tobacco harm perception.</p> O.F. Fagbule K.K. Kanmodi V.O. Samuel T.O. Isola E.O. Aliemeke M.E. Ogbeide K.E. Ogunniyi L.A. Nnyanzi H.O. Adewuyi F.B. Lawal F.B. Lawal O. Ibiyemi Copyright (c) 2022-10-02 2022-10-02 19 2 112 123 Pre-incision skin antisepsis: practice patterns among surgeons in Nigeria <p><em>Background:</em> Although studies are rife on preoperative skin antisepsis, little is known about what surgeons in Nigeria practice.<br><em>Objective:</em> To describe the pattern of practice of skin antisepsis prior to skin incision among surgeons in select tertiary hospitals in Nigeria.<br><em>Method:</em> This was a questionnaire-based descriptive cross-sectional survey involving surgeons and surgeons in training in the departments of surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology (O&amp;G), otorhinolaryngology (ENT), and oral &amp; maxillofacial surgery (OMS) of 26 select tertiary hospitals from all six geopolitical zones in Nigeria. Data was analysed using version 23 of the SPSS for Windows.<br><em>Results:</em> A total of 200 surgeons participated in the study with a male-to-female ratio of 9:1. The mean age was 37.2 ± 5.2 years. Senior registrars constituted 60.5% (n=121), followed by registrars (24%; n= 48) and consultants (15.5%; n= 31). The respondents performed a mean volume of 4 surgeries per week. Their most common practice is to perform skin preparation with 3 antiseptic agents with skin scrubbing lasting for 3-4 minutes. Skin scrubbing was performed for longer duration amongst consultants compared with senior registrars and registrars. Of all the surgical wounds encountered in their practice, 57%were clean. The common complications associated with the use of these antiseptic agents include allergic dermatitis and blisters.<br><em>Conclusion:</em> The practice of pre-incision skin antisepsis varies widely among Nigerian surgeons. The majority use 3 antiseptic agents for skin antisepsis although most of the procedures performed were clean surgeries. We recommend further studies to standardize our practice locally.</p> I.B. Ulasi A.I. Michael O.O. Ayandipo Copyright (c) 2022-10-02 2022-10-02 19 2 124 130 Knowledge and perception of infertility among adult males in Ibadan, Nigeria. <p><em>Background:</em> Infertility is a public health problem with significant social and psychological distress of the affected men due to the inability to achieve the desired social role of fatherhood. Men with infertility may experience lower life satisfaction, heightened distress and anxiety. This study assessed the knowledge, perception and factors influencing knowledge and perception of infertility among adult males in Ibadan, Nigeria.<br><em>Method:</em> Cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted among 388 adult males between April and November 2019 in the selected communities. Respondents were interviewed using a pretested structured questionnaire. Data was analysed with SPSS version 22. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were conducted. Level of significance was set at p&lt;5%.<br><em>Result:</em> The mean age of the respondents was 45.74±10.76 years. Majority were married 310(80%) and had tertiary education 234(60%). Less than half (48.7%) understood the correct meaning of infertility, 170(44%) agreed that witchcraft could cause infertility while 230(59%) disagreed that infertility could be prevented. Two hundred and sixty (67%) and 283 (73%) of the respondents had good knowledge and perception towards infertility respectively. Religion, education and income were statistically significant with knowledge of infertility (p&lt;0.05). In addition, knowledge and perception of infertility showed statistically significant association (p&lt;0.001).<br><em>Conclusion: </em>Knowledge and perception of respondents towards infertility was suboptimal in this study. Some cultural beliefs persist despite the high level of education of respondents. Community-based education on infertility to increase the knowledge and perception of men towards infertility is recommended.</p> E.O. Oluwole D.O. Fakayode E.O. Olufela O.J. Akinsola O.Y. Ojo Copyright (c) 2022-10-02 2022-10-02 19 2 131 139 Training needs assessment of stakeholders in the health insurance industry in southwest region of Nigeria: implications for universal health coverage <p><em>Background:</em> The coverage of the social health insurance scheme in Nigeria has been low. The scheme may benefit from personnel training which has been shown to improve organisational performance.<br><em>Objective:</em> This study, therefore, aimed to assess the training needs of personnel in the health insurance industry in Southwest Nigeria.<br><em>Method:</em> This was a cross-sectional survey conducted among personnel of the health insurance industry in Southwest of Nigeria. The survey tool adapted was the Hennessy-Hicks Training Needs Analysis Questionnaire. The tool has been psychometrically tested for validity and reliability. Originally, the tool has 30 items with an allowance for modification without compromising its psychometric properties. The 30 items were grouped into six superordinate categories; management/supervisory, administration, clinical/service delivery assessment, communication/ teamwork, facility financial audit/assessment, and facility infrastructure assessments. Respondents rated each item along two seven-point scales. In the first scale, respondents rated how important (importance rating) the item is to their job while in the second scale, respondents self-rated their current performance level of the item (performance rating). A training need index was generated by subtracting performance rating from the importance rating for each of the six superordinate categories.<br><em>Results:</em> Training needs for each of the six subcategories ranked by the magnitude of the derived training need index (from highest to lowest) were; clinical/service delivery, facility infrastructure, facility financial audit, management/supervisory skills, communication, and teamwork, and administration.<br><em>Conclusions:</em> Training need was demonstrated in all six subcategories. Emphasis on the relevant training need of personnel in the health insurance industry in Nigeria is important to improve efficiency and performance.</p> D.A. Adewole S. Bello A.S. Oginni Copyright (c) 2022-10-02 2022-10-02 19 2 140 146 Job satisfaction and psychological health among health workers in Lagos State teaching hospital, Nigeria <p><em>Background:</em> Dissatisfactions found in various jobs have been identified as workplace stressors that can directly influence an employee’s psychological and physical health. This study assessed job satisfaction and its relationship with the psychological health of health workers at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH).<br><em>Methods:</em> The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey conducted among 440 health workers in LASUTH. Participants were selected using the stratified sampling technique with the probability proportionate to size method. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of three sections: sociodemographic characteristics and work history, the Spector Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) and the General Health Questionnaire short version 12 (GHQ-12). Apart from the multidimensional JSS, the overall job satisfaction was also assessed using the single-item measure. Data was analysed with SPSS version 25.0. The level of statistical significance was d” 0.5.<br><em>Results:</em> The mean age of respondents was 43.1 ± 9.2 years. Only 95 (21.6%) respondents expressed satisfaction on the single-item measure. Based on the JSS, the mean job satisfaction score was 126 ± 11.1 and mean GHQ score was<br>2.88 ± 2.43. There was a consistent weak negative correlation between job satisfaction scores and GHQ scores (p &lt; 0.001). Furthermore, respondents who were satisfied with their job were less likely to have psychological morbidity (p &lt; 0.001).<br><em>Conclusion:</em> Job satisfaction among respondents was low. This was associated with a high level of psychological morbidity. There is need for further investigations on the contemporary causes of job dissatisfaction.</p> S. Bello T.E. Oni M.M. Salawu Copyright (c) 2022-10-02 2022-10-02 19 2 147 155 Accidental intraoperative finding of parasitic fibroids in the mesentery of a middle-aged woman <p>Fibroid (myoma) is the most common benign tumor of the female genital tract. The tumour may occur in the uterine corpus as intramural, submucous, subserous, cervical fibroid; or in the broad ligament as intraligamentary fibroid or outside of uterus as parasitic fibroid. Parasitic fibroid is rare as a primary or secondary tumour. It is commonly diagnosed as an incidental finding during radiologic or abdominal surgical procedures.<br>This was a case report of histologically confirmed multiple parasitic fibroids in a 39-year-old woman coexisting with primary uterine fibroids. The woman presented with a history of progressive abdominal swelling and associated lower abdominal pain of 8 years duration. There was an antecedent history of exploratory laparotomy with excision of uterine mass.<br>Abdominal ultrasonography revealed multiple uterine fibroid nodules in the submucous, intramural and subserous layers of the uterus with bilateral normal ovaries. She had abdominal myomectomy. The intraoperative findings revealed multiple uterine fibroid nodules with a total weight of 1670g. There were multiple parasitic fibroid nodules attached to the serosa<br>of the colon with the largest measuring 3.5 x 2cm.<br>We discussed the management and associated challenges of unanticipated parasitic fibroids at surgery. We highlighted the role of multi-disciplinary care and advocated for a high index of suspicion while preparing for surgical intervention in women with multiple uterine fibroids.</p> A.O. Bankole R.A. Abdus-Salam A.J. Fakoya O.O. Adegoke I.O. Morhason-Bello Copyright (c) 2022-10-02 2022-10-02 19 2 156 160 Dentists in Africa should commit to identifying and assisting patients exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke <p>No Abstract.</p> O.F. Fagbule O.G. Uti O. Sofola O.A. Ayo-Yusuf Copyright (c) 2022-10-02 2022-10-02 19 2 161 164