Anatomy Journal of Africa 2020-09-22T09:32:39+00:00 Prof. Julius Ogeng’o Open Journal Systems <p class="style48"><em>Anatomy Journal<span class="apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span>of<span class="apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span>Africa</em><span class="apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span>is the Official Journal for the&nbsp;<strong>Association of Anatomical Societies of Africa</strong>. This journal has its editorial office based at the department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, and has biannual issues (January and July issues).</p> <p class="style48">We accept and publish a wide variety of papers including:<span class="apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span><em><br><em>- Applied anatomy - Clinical anatomy - Morphology,</em><span class="apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span><em>- Embryology - Anatomical techniques and Variant anatomy.</em></em></p> <p class="style48">Other websites associated with this journal:&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> An incidental case of uterus didelphys and fibroids: Right sided myomectomy and left hemi-hysterectomy 2020-08-21T13:09:53+00:00 J.N. Mashala D. Wekesa R. Chemwey A. Pulei A. Kihara <p>Congenital anomalies of the uterus occur due to agenesis or lack of fusion of the Mullerian ducts. The incidence of these anomalies is largely&nbsp; unknown since they are unlikely to be diagnosed in asymptomatic women. Uterine didelphys or double uterus occurs when the two Mullerian ducts&nbsp; fail to fuse resulting in duplication of the uterus and cervix. This report discusses a case of a 38-yearold woman who had presented with a longstanding history of abnormal uterine bleeding and cyclical pain. She had had two successful vaginal deliveries prior to presentation to our unit. Sonographic findings revealed large uterine myomas and was consented for open myomectomy. Intraoperatively she was found to have two uteri, both of which had intramural fibroids and two cervices.</p> <p>Keywords: didelphys uterus, fibroid.</p> 2020-08-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) The dearth of standard anatomical terminologies in Yorùbá language: Butchers’ terminologies to the rescue? 2020-08-21T13:16:06+00:00 O.A. Olajuyin T.G. Olajide T.A. Akanbi R.O. Ikotun <p>The need to replace foreign-language medical terms with indigenous terms has prompted researchers to search for indigenous equivalents of the foreign medical terms. This study which focused on the dearth of standard anatomical terminologies in Yorùbá language was an attempt to examine the adoptability of butchers’ terminologies as descriptive anatomical terms for human abdomino-thoracic organs. Practising butchers in the South West Nigeria were interviewed on their terminologies for cow’s abdomino-thoracic organs and the basis for each terminology. The butchers’ terminologies, in Yorùbá language were critically appraised for adoptability as anatomical terms for human abdomino-thoracic organs. The study observed that cow’s abdomino-thoracic organs were grossly similar to those of humans. Majority (65%) of the cow’s abdomino-thoracic organs are named by the butchers’ in traditional Yorùbá terminologies. The butchers’ terminologies were etymologically derived based on pre-existing concepts similar to the modern terminologies derived from the ancient Greek and Latin words. About 25% of the butchers’ terminologies were the same with some human anatomical terminologies which were in use by the health care professionals. The terminologies concur with the cultural attitudes of the Yorùbá with reference to the private parts of the human body and majority (80%) of the butchers’ terminologies is simple&nbsp; and familiar to the people. Given these characteristic features, we concluded that the butchers’ terminologies are strongly adoptable as descriptive anatomical terms for human abdomino-thoracic organs and may resolve the dearth of standard anatomical terminologies in Yorùbá language. The&nbsp; findings may form a baseline for future studies on the translation of anatomical terminologies to Yorùbá language.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Anatomical terms; Butchers terms; Abdomino-thoracic organs; Yorùbá language. </p> 2020-08-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Gross anatomical features and osteometric variables of the scapula of the african tree squirrel (<I>Funisciurus anerythrus</I>), house (<I>Rattus Rattus</I>) and wistar rats 2020-08-21T13:31:38+00:00 Ekeolu Oyetunde Kazeem Omirinde Jamiu Oyewole Usende Levi Ifukot <p>This study comparatively investigated gross features and osteometric variables in scapula of three rodents: tree squirrel (<em>Funisciurus anerythrus</em> ),&nbsp; house (<em>Rattus Rattus</em> ) and Wistar rats. A total of thirty three animals (11 per rodent species) were used for the study. The rodents were&nbsp; anaesthetized using ketamine and xylazine combination (80 mg/kg: 10 mg/kg body weight), sacrificed and processed for scapular bone extraction by burying method. Grossly, the scapular bones are flattened in all the rodents and have various shapes; semicircular in squirrel and roughly&nbsp; triangular in both Rattus rattus and Wistar rats. The scapula of the squirrel bears a hook-like acromion process and a distinct subscapular spine. Osteometric variables; scapular width and length of scapular neck are significantly reduced (p&lt;0.05) in the squirrel relative to other rodents. While the length of glenoid and diameter of infra spinatous fossa in <em>Rattus rattus</em> as well as the scapular spine length in squirrel respectively show marked increase when compared to other rodents.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Funisciurus anerythrus, Rattus rattus ,</em> Wistar, scapula, morphology, osteometry, comparative</p> 2020-08-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Activation of pro-apoptotic cells, reactive astrogliosis and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein in trimethyltin-induced hippocampal injury in rats 2020-08-21T13:40:13+00:00 A.A. Okesina M.S. Ajao M.O. Buhari A.M. Afodun K.B. Okesina R.Y. Usman F.A. Sulaimon B.P. Kolawole <p>Neurodegenerative diseases cause neural cells to lose both the functional and sensory abilities as a result of genetic factors, proteopathies and mitochondrial dysfunction. Neurodegeneration forms the basis of most neurodegenerative disorders for example Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s diseases, and Parkinson’s diseases. The mechanism that underlines the process of neurodegeneration is not well understood. Understanding the process and mechanism involved in neurodegeneration might offer a better therapeutic approach to positively manage cases of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, this study’s target was to create an animal model to study neurodegeneration. Sixteen adult male Wistar rats were used in the study and divided into two groups. Control (0.2 mL of normal saline (NS)), and trimethyltin-treated (TMT, 8 mg/kg stat dose only). These animals underwent perfusion with 4% paraformaldehyde, brain excision and analysis of p53 antigen, GFAP and Bielshowsky on these tissues. The results showed that animals in the control group showed presence of activated p53 antigen, reactive astrogliosis, neurofibrillary tangles, and amyloid plaques within the cytoplasm of the hippocampal cells. Cornus Ammonis (CA2) and (CA3) showed more of the trimethylrtin injury than CA1 and CA4. This study thus revealed that, intra-peritoneal administration of single dose of 8mg/kg of trimethyltin can offer an attractive disease model to study some neurodegenerative diseases.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: p53 antigen, Bielshowsky, Glia fibrillary acidic protein, Trimethyltin, Hippocampus,</p> 2020-08-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Anatomical variations of the superior cerebellar artery: A cadaveric study at the University Teaching Hospitals, Lusaka, Zambia 2020-08-21T13:47:30+00:00 Mickey Banda Caswell Hachabizwa Joseph Hainza Sikhanyiso Mutemwa Krikor Erzingastian <p>The superior cerebellar artery usually arises from the terminal end of the basilar artery. It may also originate from the posterior cerebral artery and or from a common trunk with the posterior cerebral artery. The anatomical variations of superior cerebellar artery show ethnic differences, but there are few reports on African populations in particular none from Zambia. Variations of the superior cerebellar artery might cause compression symptoms of cranial nerves III, IV and V. Furthermore, the presence of such variations has been considered to be a factor in the aetiology of&nbsp; aneurysms and thrombus formation leading to cerebellar infarcts. The objectives of the study were to explore anatomical variations on the origin of the superior cerebellar artery; to measure the outer diameter at its origin and the length of superior cerebellar artery to its first bifurcation; to establish the presence of duplication , triplication , hypoplasia , agenesis , fenestration and any other anomalies that were detectable. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study in which 46 post-mortem human cadaveric brains were systematically sampled. A total of 113 superior cerebellar arteries were identified in 42 male and four female cadavers of age ranging between 18 and 65 years (mean 34.05±9.237mm). Superior cerebellar artery arose from the basilar artery as a single vessel in 49.5%, the common trunk arose in 6.2% and posterior cerebral artery origin was seen in 5.7%. Overall duplication of the superior cerebellar artery was seen in 35.5% and triplication in 5.3%. Nineteen (16.8%) of the superior cerebellar arteries were hypoplastic (less than 1mm) and ninety-four (83.2%) were normal. The diameter of the superior cerebellar artery at its origin ranged 0.25mm to 2.48mm (mean 1.42±0.54mm). The length of the superior cerebellar artery to its first bifurcation ranged from 3.77mm to 33.53mm (mean 21.92±7.40mm). Statistically, gender had no significant association of superior cerebellar artery variations (p&gt;0.05). This knowledge will improve<br>diagnosis and management of patients with vascular disorders of the posterior circulation. The newly identified patterns could be a contribution to the SCA classification system.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Superior cerebellar artery, duplication, triplication and hypoplasia</p> 2020-08-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Cadaveric embalming using a modified Thiel method as an alternative to the formalin method 2020-09-22T08:14:36+00:00 Caswell Hachabizwa Mickey Banda Joseph Hainza Sikhanyiso Mutemwa Krikor Erzingastian Elliot Kafumukache <p>Formalin embalming method is cheaper and commonly used. Thiel method is said to be complex, expensive, not commonly used but offers better cadavers for student teaching. The study aimed at exploring the effects of two embalming methods; modified Thiel and formalin methods on cadavers in terms of muscle softness, joint flexibility, tissue colour, formalin smell and the ease with which structures can be identified. This was an experimental study design done over the period of three months where four adult male cadavers were embalmed (two under each method) and the outcome was compared. Using gravity about Ten Litres of arterial and five Litres venous Thiel fluids was slowly infused into each Thiel cadaver through the carotid artery and femoral vein respectively and cadavers remained overnight. Thiel cadavers were submerged in the tank containing about 300L of Thiel fluid, covered with a blanket and left for eight weeks. Each formalin cadaver was infused with about 15Litres of 10% formalin using the carotid artery and then wrapped in transparent plastics. Thereafter, cadavers were codified and placed in different rooms where participants examined and dissected some regions starting with Thiel cadavers and crossing over to the formalin cadavers after twenty-four hours. Thiel cadavers were softer than formalin (mean = 4.89 ± 0.53 Thiel and 2.1 ± 1.26 for formalin). For joint flexibility, at least 75% of participants strongly agreed for Thiel and at least 75% of the participants strongly disagreed for formalin (mean = 4.81 ± 0.86 Thiel and 1.71 ± 1.13 formalin). Tissue colour was closer to natural in Thiel compared to the formalin cadavers (mean = 4.82 ± 0.55 Thiel and 1.77 ± 1.07 formalin). There were no complaints due to irritant formalin smell in Thiel cadavers as opposed to the formalin ones (mean = 1.15 ± 0.55 Thiel and 4.56 ± 1.15 formalin). At least 75% agreed that it was easy to identify structures in the Thiel cadavers than formalin (mean = 4.67 ± 0.61 and 2.61 ± 1.14 formalin). Thiel embalming method offers good quality cadavers that are soft, flexible; tissue colour closer to natural state and without is strong formalin smell and structures can easily be identified.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Cadaveric embalming, modified Thiel, formalin methods</p> 2020-09-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 A review of telocytes in cardiovascular tissue and their role in angiogenesis 2020-09-22T08:16:44+00:00 Ibsen Ongidi Fadhila Abdulsalaam Harry Otieno Noel Odero Anne Pulei Moses Obimbo Kevin Ongeti <p>Telocytes are interstitial cells characterized by small cell bodies with very long and slender processes extending from them. They are present in most tissues and are most commonly found in close association with nerves, smooth muscle and microvascular networks in tissue interstitial space. Telocytes maintain tissue homeostasis in various ways including modulation of electrical activity, regulation of stem cell proliferation and angiogenesis. The role of telocytes in blood vessels stems from a structural and functional coupling to vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. This review explores the distribution of telocytes in cardiovascular tissues, their mechanisms in angiogenesis and application of this property in tissue regeneration. The literature search was conducted on PubMedTM, Science directTM and African Journals Online databases as well as Google ScholarTM search engines. The keywords used in the literature search included ‘telocytes’, ‘cardiovascular telocytes’, ‘blood vessel’, ‘cardiac tissue’, ‘(neo-)angiogenesis’ and ‘tissue regeneration’. Articles which contained the keywords and relevant citations from their reference lists were included in the study. In conclusion, telocytes display close structural relationship with cardiovascular tissues. They play an angiogenesis inducing role which may be explored as a therapeutic target in tissue repair and regeneration.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong> : cardiovascular telocytes, interstitial Cajal-like cell, regeneration, angiogenesis</p> 2020-09-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Evaluation of histology and semen parameters in testes of <i>Yaji</i>-treated albino rats 2020-09-22T08:28:19+00:00 M.O. Agbaje I.E. Okoko F.I.O. Duru <p><em>Yaji</em>, also called suya sauce, is a local meat sauce made from complex spices. Some of the effects of its constituents on the liver and brain have been scientifically proven and documented. However, their separate and combined effects on the testes are yet to be fully evaluated. This study aimed at evaluating histological and semen parameters of testes of albino rats treated with <em>Yaji.</em> Thirty adult albino rats were procured and divided into six groups labeled A-F. Group A (control) received feed and water only. Group B (main test group) received aqueous extract of <em>Yaji</em> at 200mg/kg body weight, using oral gavage. Groups C-F received 200mg/kg body weights of some <em>Yaji</em> constituents - clove, black pepper, groundnut cake and bouillon cubes (100mg/kg body weight) respectively. The experimental period was 56 days. The rats’ weights were measured at procurement, weekly, and at end of experiment. Testes weights were also measured and subsequently, gonadosomatic indices of the rats were deduced. Chronic consumption of<em> Yaji</em> was not associated with histological impairment to the testicular architecture. Rather, there was improvement of semen parameters (increased sperm count, motility and percentage normal morphology). However, there was a significant (p&lt;0.05) decrease in body weights and non-significant (p&gt;0.05) increase in gonadosomatic index. Findings from this study suggests that consumption of Yaji has no deleterious effects on the testes within the period of study, considering histological and semen parameters. Further studies may reveal its use in managing obesity and infertility.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Gonadosomatic Index, Infertility, Suya Sauce, Sperm Count, Testes, <em>Yaji</em></p> 2020-09-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) A rare case of anatomical variation of the femoral artery and vein 2020-09-22T08:59:45+00:00 B. Ba T. Touré A. Kanté M. Koné K.D. Kouamenou M. Koné F. Guissé T. Coulibaly N. Ongoïba A.K. Koumaré <p>During a dissection of the two femoral trigons in a female corpse, about 14 years old, we discovered on the right side, the deep artery of the thigh arising from the medial side of the femoral artery and passed in front of the femoral vein above the mouth of the great saphenous vein; on both sides, there was the presence of a collateral canal which communicated the external iliac vein with the femoral vein on the right, on the left, it communicated the external iliac vein with the quadricipital vein. The lower part of the femoral vein was duplicated on both sides, but on the right, there was an interconnecting channel between the two trunks of the duplication. Variations of the femoral vessels are very frequent and can be responsible for an incident during the practice of certain gestures at the level of the femoral trigon such as: catheterization of the femoral artery or vein, the treatment of femoral hernias.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Deep thigh artery, collateral venous canal, external iliac vein, anatomic variations.</p> 2020-09-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) A rare saccular aneurysm in cadaveric aortic arch: A case report 2020-09-22T09:06:38+00:00 Julie Christy Amalraj Rajeev Panwar <p><em>Aneurysm</em> is the swelling like enlargement present in the walls of the blood vessels. <em>Saccular aneurysm</em> is a rare entity when compared to fusiform aneurysm. <em>Saccular aneurysm</em> in the aortic arch is another rare location. We present a cadaveric case of a 55-year-old male cadaver in which saccular aneurysm was observed during routine dissection teaching for undergraduate students. The lesion was resected and sent for microscopic analysis. The lesion involved the vessel wall only. There were blood clots evident. This report presents the cadaveric presentation and histolopathological findings of the lesion.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> <em>Aneurysm, saccular aneurysm,</em> aortic arch</p> 2020-09-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Neuroprotective potentials of <i>Lycopersicon esculentum </i>fruit extract on cadmium-induced toxicity in postnatal developing cerebellum of rats 2020-09-22T09:24:34+00:00 Imosemi Innocent Ohiorenuan Mustapha Olufunke Wuraola <p>The neuroprotective potemtials of <em>Lycopersicon esculentum</em> fruit extract on cadmium-induced oxidative stress in postnatal developing cerebellum of rats. Twenty-five pregnant Wistar rats (110-200g) were divided into five groups (n=5) and used for the experiment. Group I served as control and received water, Group II received 0.5mg/kg of Cadmium only, Group III received 50mg/kg aqueous extract of <em>Lycopersicon esculentum</em> only, Group IV received 0.5mg/kg body weight of cadmium+50mg/kg aqueous extract of <em>Lycopersicon esculentum</em> and Group V received 0.5mg/kg of cadmium +200mg/kg of vitamin C, orally from the first day of gestation to postnatal day 21. <em>Lycopersicon esculentum</em> was administered one hour before the administration of cadmium. Neurobehavioural tests was done on the pups of day 21. Then, pups of day 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 were weighed, sacrificed and their brains dissected out, weighed with the cerebellum preserved for biochemical and histomorphological evaluations. Data were analysed using ANOVA at p &lt; 0.05. Cadmium-treated rats showed significant decreased in body and brain weight, decreased time spent on the forelimb grip, increased negative geotaxis, increased lipid peroxidation (LPO), and decreased glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the developing cerebellum. Histologically, there was persistent external granular layer (EGL), reduced molecular layer (ML) thickness and increased astrocytes population in the cerebellar cortex of cadmium-treated day 21pups. <em>Lycopersicon esculentum</em> extract and vitamin C reversed the behavioural and morphological alterations induced by cadmium toxicity. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress, behavioural deficit and morphological alterations in the postnatal developing cerebellum of rat was ameliorated by<em> Lycopersicon esculentum</em> fruit extracts as such may be a potential neuroprotective agent.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Cadmium - oxidative stress - <em>Lycopersicon esculentum</em> – Neurobehaviour - Developing cerebellar cortex</p> 2020-09-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Directional asymmetry in handedness and hand efficiency 2020-09-22T09:32:39+00:00 P.M. Idenya P. Gichangi J. Ogeng’o <p>Several studies analyse anthropometric dimensions of the hands, but few look at how they influence hand performance or hand efficiency. In this analytic cross-sectional study conducted amongst 162 preclinical medical students, directional asymmetry was evaluated in relation to hand preference and hand efficiency in order to determine whether it can be used as an indicator for outcomes of hand dominance. Directional asymmetry (DA) was established by calculating differences in the mean hand measurements and the mean hand volumes. Hand preference was assessed using the modified Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, and handedness categories determined by applying the Geschwind Score. Hand dominance was categorized from the laterality score obtained from differences between left and right hands. Differences in hand dimensions were evaluated in relation to hand preference and hand efficiency. An apparent similarity in the morphology of the hands was suggested by the highly positive statistically significant result in the paired samples correlation test across all the parameters (p &lt; 0.001). A positive association (not statistically significant) was noted between the handedness categories and the demonstrated directional asymmetry. No gender disparity was found in the relationship between DA and Hand efficiency by grip strength testing. The EHI-GS hand preference category positively indicated the preferred hand but did not on its own designate hand dominance or hand proficiency. Notwithstanding the gender, EHI-GS handedness neither predicted DA nor hand efficiency. Similarly, neither EHI-GS hand preference nor hand efficiency by grip strength testing could predict DA in males and females alike.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Hand performance, Hand proficiency, Hand dominance, Grip strength testing, Laterality</p> 2020-09-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)