https://www.ajol.info/index.php/aja/issue/feed Anatomy Journal of Africa 2023-10-09T11:48:18+00:00 Prof. Julius Ogeng’o anatafrica@gmail.com Open Journal Systems <p class="style48"><em>Anatomy Journal<span class="apple-converted-space"> </span>of<span class="apple-converted-space"> </span>Africa</em><span class="apple-converted-space"> </span>is the Official Journal for the <strong>Association of Anatomical Societies of Africa</strong>. This journal has its editorial office based at the department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, and has biannual issues (January and July issues).</p> <p class="style48">We accept and publish a wide variety of papers including:<span class="apple-converted-space"> </span><em><br /><em>- Applied anatomy - Clinical anatomy - Morphology,</em><span class="apple-converted-space"> </span><em>- Embryology - Anatomical techniques and Variant anatomy.</em></em></p> <p class="style48">See the journal's website here: <a href="https://anatomyafrica.com/index.php/aja/index" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://anatomyafrica.com/index.php/aja/index&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1691226487428000&amp;usg=AOvVaw0QbXsCqk8cCjls_Albxxcr">https://anatomyafrica.<wbr />com/index.php/aja/index</a></p> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/aja/article/view/256724 Reducing the risk of nuclear war- the role of healthcare professionals 2023-10-09T09:43:17+00:00 Kamran Abbasi czielinski@ippnw.org Parveen Ali czielinski@ippnw.org Virginia Barbour czielinski@ippnw.org Kirsteen Bibbins-Domingo czielinski@ippnw.org Marcel G.M. Olde Rikkert czielinski@ippnw.org Andy Haines czielinski@ippnw.org Ira Helfland czielinski@ippnw.org Ricard Horton czielinski@ippnw.org Robert Mash czielinski@ippnw.org Arun Mitra czielinski@ippnw.org Carlos Monteiro czielinski@ippnw.org Elena N. Naumova czielinski@ippnw.org Eric J. Rubin czielinski@ippnw.org Tilman Ruff czielinski@ippnw.org Peush Sahni czielinski@ippnw.org James Tumwine czielinski@ippnw.org Paul Yonga czielinski@ippnw.org Chris Zielinki czielinski@ippnw.org <p>No Abstract</p> 2023-10-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/aja/article/view/256728 Age estimation using orthopantomograms and Demirjian method among children attending dental clinics in western Kenya 2023-10-09T10:09:21+00:00 Ode Brian brianode7@gmail.com Immaculate Opondo brianode7@gmail.com Walter Adero brianode7@gmail.com Willis Oyieko brianode7@gmail.com Domnic Marera brianode7@gmail.com <p><strong>Background</strong>: Various methods have been used to estimate age in different populations among them being Demirjian which has widely&nbsp; been utilized. However, in Kenya, there is hardly any approved method that can be used to achieve this purpose, hence the need to&nbsp; determine the available methods for estimating the age of children in Western Kenya. Therefore, this study aimed at estimating&nbsp; radiological age using Demirjian method among children attending dental clinics in Western Kenya.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The study adopted a cross- sectional descriptive design and used Yamane Taro (1967) formulae to find a sample size of 171 panoramic radiographs of children aged&nbsp; between 5-17 years which were examined in order to determine the tooth maturity stages (A-H) for the first seven mandibular teeth on&nbsp; the left side. Each maturity stage was then assigned a corresponding maturity score as per Demirjian conversion tables for boys and girls,&nbsp; summed up and converted into dental age. Descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, standard error of mean was&nbsp; presented in tables and graphs while inferential statistics such as linear regression was used to measure the deviation and test of&nbsp; significance.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The overall mean dental age was 8.16 ± 2.7 with a standard error of mean of 0.211. The female and male mean dental age deviated from the chronological age at ±2.22 years and ±1.68 years respectively at 95% Confidence interval.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In&nbsp; conclusion, the study revealed an underestimation of the dental age from chronological age using Demirjian method among children of&nbsp; African origin.&nbsp;&nbsp; </p> 2023-10-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/aja/article/view/256729 Vertebral changes in the lumbar spine of adults presenting with chronic low back pain at a Referral Hospital in western Kenya 2023-10-09T10:15:49+00:00 Papa Imade Stellah Stellahpapa2018@gmail.com Adero Sulman Walter Stellahpapa2018@gmail.com Domnic Marera Stellahpapa2018@gmail.com Otieno Washington Stellahpapa2018@gmail.com Masoni Isaac Stellahpapa2018@gmail.com <p><strong>Background</strong>: Chronic low back pain is a common musculoskeletal symptom affecting the lower part of the spine. It is described as pain&nbsp; and discomfort around the lumbar region lasting for more than twelve weeks. The symptoms of chronic low back pain might range from&nbsp; a dull ache to a stubbing or shooting sensation. This nature of pain may be localized around the axial region or radiate to the lower limbs&nbsp; affecting the patients’ daily activities. The aim of this study, therefore, was to evaluate vertebral changes in the lumbar spine of adults&nbsp; presenting with chronic low back pain at Kakamega County General and Referral Hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This was a cross-sectional&nbsp; quantitative descriptive study whereby; patients’ data was collected during patients’ presentation at orthopedic outpatient clinic and MRI&nbsp; department. Purposive sampling of lumbar spine Magnetic resonance imaging scans was used to obtain data. A total of 144 patients&nbsp; were selected using the Yamane Taro formula. Anatomical vertebral changes of the lumbar spine were assessed from the&nbsp; selected MRIs to evaluate the structural causes of chronic low back pain. Descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage were&nbsp; used in analyzing the data.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> It was noted that osteophytes were the most pathological changes causing chronic low back pain&nbsp; while fractures were the least common. Osteophytic changes in the vertebra and desiccation of the intervertebral discs can predispose&nbsp; one to chronic lower back pain.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The study recommends early screening and treatment of lower back pain to avert its&nbsp; sequelae.&nbsp; </p> 2023-10-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/aja/article/view/256730 The role of sex hormones and ROS values in the control of andrology in male double-spurred Francolin (<i>Francolinus bicalcaratus</i>) 2023-10-09T10:22:24+00:00 Olakunle Olutoye Osinubi ainasanmi@gmail.com Oluwasanmi Olayinka Aina ainasanmi@gmail.com Peter Chuka Ozegbe ainasanmi@gmail.com <p><strong>Background</strong>: This study explored the relationship between andrology, seasonal sex hormone fluctuations, and ROS values in adult male&nbsp; Francolinus bicalcaratus while establishing baseline parameters.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Double-spurred Francolins (n=5 per season) were randomly&nbsp; selected in both dry and rainy seasons from their natural habitat. They were carefully stabilized with dewormer, antibiotics, and&nbsp; multivitamins, then acclimatized for two weeks at the Experimental Animal House, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. The birds were weighed,&nbsp; sedated, and 3 to 5 ml of blood was collected from the jugular vein in lithium heparinized bottles for serum sex hormone analysis. Testes&nbsp; were excised, weighed, washed with a 1.15% KCL solution, and processed for complete andrology and oxidative stress assays.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>:&nbsp; Sperm count, activity, and morphological characteristics peaked during late rainy seasons, coinciding with increased mating and&nbsp; hatchability. This correlated with high serum testosterone and low ROS titres in the testes. Conversely, early dry seasons witnessed&nbsp; declines in serum testosterone, sperm parameters, and hatchability due to increased ROS titres from food scarcity. Late dry seasons saw&nbsp; further declines in sex hormone levels and elevated ROS titres, leading to the absence of sperm cells.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study highlights&nbsp; how sex hormone and ROS titres influence sperm cell viability in double-spurred Francolins, with significant seasonal variations. These factors mainly support spermatogenesis and fertility during the breeding season, characterized by food abundance and cover. Dry&nbsp; season sex hormone values serve as baselines, while wet season sperm count and ROS levels represent baseline data for this bird&nbsp; species.&nbsp; </p> 2023-10-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/aja/article/view/256731 Restorative effects of Silymarin milk thistle on the liver following paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in adult albino rats 2023-10-09T10:27:02+00:00 Davis Kiprono Ngetich davis.ngetich@yahoo.com Scolastica Korir davis.ngetich@yahoo.com Molly Okoth davis.ngetich@yahoo.com <p><strong>Background</strong>: Paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity has been on the rise worldwide and there is a need for restorative measures to&nbsp; counter its effect. Silymarin milk thistle is an herb that has been used for the treatment of liver conditions. This current study aimed at&nbsp; determining the restorative effects of silymarin milk thistle on the liver morphology and terminal body weight of paracetamol-induced&nbsp; hepatotoxicity among albino rats.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: This study was conducted at Maseno University, and a posttest-only experimental&nbsp; design was used. A total of 24 adult albino rats were randomly selected and grouped into four groups, each consisting of six albino rats. Positive control received (5 days of high-dose paracetamol 750mg/kbwt) and negative control received no drug intervention. Three&nbsp; experimental groups received high-dose paracetamol for five days and were thereafter given varying doses of silymarin milk thistle (low- dose group: 200 mg/kbwt, medium-dose: 400 mg/kbwt and high-dose: 600 mg/kbwt) of silymarin milk thistle. Gross liver morphological&nbsp; data and body weight were expressed as mean ± SEM. A one-way ANOVA analysis of variance was used to test the mean groups and a&nbsp; post hoc test was used to test the difference between the mean groups. A p ≤ 0.05 was found to have statistical significance at a 95%&nbsp; confidence interval.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> This current study found that there was a significant (p≤ 0.0001) increase in mean weight, volume, length,&nbsp; and width of the liver in the high dose silymarin milk thistle group as compared to the positive control group. There was a significant (p≤&nbsp; 0.0001) reduction in the terminal mean body weight of the rats in the positive control group, low dose silymarin group and the medium&nbsp; dose silymarin group respectively, as compared to the negative control group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Silymarin milk thistle was found to have&nbsp; restorative effects on the liver morphology and body weight following paracetamol toxicity at high dose.&nbsp; </p> 2023-10-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/aja/article/view/256732 Testicular morphological evaluations in Sprgue-Dawley rats under an antitussive dextromethorphan 2023-10-09T10:32:54+00:00 Adebajo Adesina Oluwaseye adebajoseye@gmail.com Gbotolorun Stella Chinwe adebajoseye@gmail.com Oremosu Ademola Ayodele adebajoseye@gmail.com <p><strong>Background</strong>: Dextromethorphan is the dextrorotatory enantiomer of the methyl ether of levorphanol, an opioid analgesic. It is also a&nbsp; stereoisomer of levomethorphan, an opioid analgesic and has been reported to affect male fertility by altering the cytoarchitecture of the&nbsp; seminiferous tubules and affect hormones that are responsible for fecundity in males. The aim of this study is to determine the&nbsp; possible morphological alterations in males following exposure to dextromethorphan, using Sprague-Dawley rats as experimental&nbsp; models.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A total of twenty rats (150 ± 30 g) divided into four groups (N=5; A-D) were used. Group A, control received distilled&nbsp; water (DW); group B received 20 mg/kg of the drug, group C received 40 mg/kg and group D received 80 mg/kg of DM for a duration of&nbsp; 16 weeks. At the end of treatment period, the animals were selected and sacrificed, the following histomorphometric parameters were analyzed: diameter and height of the seminiferous tubule and epididymis, volume of testes and the number of spermatogonia,&nbsp; spermatocytes and spermatids within the seminiferous tubules.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Significant reduction in all the Histomorphometric parameters&nbsp; were recorded when treatment groups were compared to control but when recovery-alone group was compared to treatment groups,&nbsp; slight increases were recorded.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: DM has deleterious effect on the morphometric parameters analyzed from the epididymis&nbsp; and testes.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </p> 2023-10-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/aja/article/view/256733 <i>Curcuma longa</i> renal historestorative effects on sildenafil induced nephrotoxicity among male albino rats 2023-10-09T10:38:09+00:00 Khisa Wanjala Allan Allanwanjala345@gmail.com Spencer Opiyo Oyugi Allanwanjala345@gmail.com Atanas Malik Nyabola Allanwanjala345@gmail.com <p><strong>Background</strong>: Sildenafil is a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor mostly used in management of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary&nbsp; hypertension. On the other hand, <em>Curcuma longa</em> is herbal plant that is mostly used in diets among the Asian and African population and&nbsp; commonly used in treatment of respiratory, renal and dermatological diseases.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A post-test only true experimental study design&nbsp; was utilized with 25 Albino rats grouped as follows: negative control, positive control (sildenafil 1µg/g bwt), low dose<em> Curcuma&nbsp; longa</em> (38.75mg/kg), medium dose <em>Curcuma longa</em> (77.5mg/kg) and high dose <em>Curcuma longa</em> (155mg/kg) each having 5 rats. Induction of&nbsp; nephrotoxicity using sildenafil was done for 15 days with an interim sacrifice for negative and positive control groups done on day 15.&nbsp; Experimental groups were sacrificed on day 22 after receiving <em>Curcuma longa</em> at respective doses. Blood samples for renal function tests&nbsp; were obtained on day 1, 15 and 22. Enblock harvesting of the kidneys after euthanizing the rats with concentrated CO<sub>2</sub> and 10% neutral&nbsp; buffered formalin perfusion was done on day 15 and 22 then fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for 24hours. The kidneys were then&nbsp; processed for Hematoxylin and Eosin staining and photomicrographs were taken using Olympus light microscope fitted with LABOMED&nbsp; ivu 3100 digital camera.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In sildenafil induced nephrotoxicity group; glomerulus was distorted, dilated bowman`s space, dilated&nbsp; renal tubules and necrotic epithelial cells. Minimal histological changes were observed in low Curcuma longa dose group while in&nbsp; medium and high <em>Curcuma longa</em> dose groups; the glomerulus had well defined margins, bowman`s space reduced in size, epithelial cells&nbsp; appeared normal.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: It can be concluded that medium and high dose <em>Curcuma longa</em> have kidney historestorative effects in&nbsp; sildenafil induced nephrotoxicity among male albino rats.&nbsp;&nbsp; </p> 2023-10-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/aja/article/view/256734 Morphological variations of the pterion among skulls at the Galloway Osteological Collection in the Department of Human Anatomy Makerere University 2023-10-09T10:49:43+00:00 Joyce Nabukalu Jnabukalu343@gmail.com Kiwanuka James Jnabukalu343@gmail.com Okello Michael Jnabukalu343@gmail.com Kirum G. Gonzaga Jnabukalu343@gmail.com Erisa Mwaka Jnabukalu343@gmail.com Joseph Ochieng Jnabukalu343@gmail.com <p><strong>Background</strong>: The pterion is an important anatomical landmark in anatomy, neurosurgery, radiology, and forensic examinations. The&nbsp; region is prone to damage following blunt trauma of the head. Although the structure varies with age, sex and ethnicity, this has not&nbsp; been documented in the Ugandan setting. The study set out to describe the morphological variations of the pterion among skulls in the&nbsp; Galloway Osteological Collection at the Department of Anatomy, Makerere University.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This was a descriptive cross-sectional&nbsp; study that examined human skulls for the type of pterion, the distance between the center of the pterion and mid zygomatic arch, and&nbsp; the distance between the center of the pterion and the frontozygomatic suture. The measurements were conducted using a digital&nbsp; Vernier caliper. Data was analyzed using the Welch t-test and student t-test.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 65 skulls were studied, the sphenoparietal&nbsp; type of pterion was the commonest 65.4%. The pterion in females was located more posteriorly from the frontozygomatic suture&nbsp; compared to that of males, however the p-value was 0.10. The distance from pterion to zygomatic arch and frontozygomatic suture&nbsp; showed variations with age and nationality.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The Pterion exhibited variations which need to be considered during&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; examinations and operations of the region.</p> 2023-10-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/aja/article/view/256735 Pattern of musculocutaneous and median nerve communication in adult cadavers 2023-10-09T11:07:03+00:00 Mya Thein Shin myatheinshin009@gmail.com Phone Myint Htoo myatheinshin009@gmail.com <p><strong>Background</strong>: Variations in connections between the musculocutaneous and median nerves in the arm are not as uncommon as was once&nbsp; thought. Lesions of the communicating nerve may give rise to patterns of weakness that may impose difficulty in diagnosis.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this study is to determine the variation of the musculocutaneous nerve (MCN) and analyze the incidence of nerve&nbsp; communication between the musculocutaneous and median nerves.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Anatomical dissection was performed in the present work&nbsp; by using 62 arms from 31 adult cadavers, age ranging from eighteen to eighty years, which was donated to Medical Universities in&nbsp; Myanmar. Among the 62 studied arms, 26 arms (41.9%) were male, and 36 arms (58.1%) were female.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Nerve variation patterns&nbsp; were seen in four out of 62 studied arms (6.4%) and one arm (1.6%) showed no musculocutaneous nerve. One out of 62 studied arms&nbsp; (1.6%) revealed the musculocutaneous nerve did not pierce the coracobrachialis muscles but communicated with the median nerve in the&nbsp; upper third of arm. One out 62 studied arms (1.6%) revealed a musculocutaneous nerve piercing the coracobrachialis muscle and&nbsp; communicated with the median nerve in the upper third of arm. Communicating branch was found in two upper limbs (3.22%).&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The knowledge of these variations will allow physicians to correctly interpret anomalous innervation patterns of the upper limb.</p> 2023-10-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/aja/article/view/256736 Protective effect of <i>Rosemarinus officinalis</i> on gentamicin-induced acute kidney injury in adult male albino rats 2023-10-09T11:13:40+00:00 Kennedy Wanyonyi Waswa kennedywaswa1@gmail.com Domnic Marera kennedywaswa1@gmail.com Scolastica Korir kennedywaswa1@gmail.com Isaac Masoni kennedywaswa1@gmail.com <p><strong>Background</strong>: Gentamicin (GN) drug is one of the first-line drugs for managing severe gramnegative bacteria. Its association with acute kidney injury (AKI) has restricted its use due to oxidation damage to kidney architectural structures. <em>Rosmarinus Officinalis</em> (rosemary) is a<br>natural antioxidant available and affordable in many developing countries. Antioxidants can be used to prevent oxidation that causes AKI&nbsp; in GN use. This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective gross morphological effect of <em>Rosmarinus Officinalis</em> (RO) on Gentamicin- induced acute Kidney injury in male albino rats’ species of <em>Rattus norvegicus</em>.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: The study was done in Kenya at Maseno&nbsp; University. A posttest true experimental design was used, and a sample size of 25 Albino rats was calculated using a resource-modified&nbsp; equation. Rats were randomly sampled into 5 groups, each with 5 albino rats. The negative control group received a standard rat diet&nbsp; plus water, the positive control received GN100,mg/kg/bwt/i.p, low-dose RO, medium-dose RO, and high-dose RO groups received&nbsp; 100,150 and 200 mg/kg/bwt of RO orally, respectively, and were co-administered with GN 100mg/kg/bwt/i.p. At the end of day seven, they were humanely sacrificed, and gross morphometric were taken.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: It was observed that the mean weight of the rat, weight,&nbsp; and volume of the kidney increased significantly (p= 0.001) in high-dose RO group as compared to the positive control. The mean length&nbsp; and thickness in high-dose RO group increased significantly (p=0.0001) as compared to the positive control.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This present&nbsp; study shows that co-administration of a high dose of RO has a protective effect on gross morphology against Gentamicin-induced AKI&nbsp; among male albino rats.&nbsp; </p> 2023-10-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/aja/article/view/256737 Determinants of cadaver acquisition at Human Anatomy Learning Institutions in Kenya 2023-10-09T11:39:50+00:00 Benard Siwa benard.siwa@gmail.com Walter Adero benard.siwa@gmail.com Willis Oyieko benard.siwa@gmail.com Domnic Marera benard.siwa@gmail.com Kevin Ongeti benard.siwa@gmail.com <p><strong>Background</strong>: Human anatomy instruction in Kenya is based on dissection of cadavers during practical sessions. Institutions get these&nbsp; cadavers using procedures available to them. However, the processes used are not standardized, and several problems are likely to&nbsp; develop during the cadaver acquisition process. Several factors appear to have an impact on the source, availability, and cadaver&nbsp; collection techniques. Some of the issues affecting cadaver acquisition may not be sufficiently addressed by current anatomy practice&nbsp; guidelines. This study evaluated the determinants of cadaver acquisition at human anatomy learning institutions in Kenya.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:&nbsp;</strong> Anatomists and anatomy laboratory personnel handling cadavers in Kenya were interviewed for the study. A cross-sectional study design&nbsp; was used, as well as a purposive sampling strategy. The self-administered surveys were completed by 68 study participants. The data was&nbsp; tallied, loaded into SPSS version 26 for analysis, then plotted into graphs and tables for interpretation.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Cadavers were mostly&nbsp; acquired from unclaimed bodies (100%). In most situations (80.9%), anatomy laboratory technicians oversee cadaver collection. A&nbsp; cadaver acquisition delay of more than two weeks was reported by 80.88% of respondents. According to 44.12% of respondents, the&nbsp; biggest reason for cadaver collecting delays was the need for financial compensation. Most cadavers (98.5%) are obtained through&nbsp; lobbying at the source. According to 92.6% of responders, defaced or damaged cadavers are mostly rejected. According to 94.2% of&nbsp; respondents, the Kenya Anatomy Act has no instructions on how to obtain cadavers.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The efficiency of cadaver acquisition is&nbsp; affected by several factors that affect both the procedure and the people in charge of procuring the cadavers. Institutions in Kenya lack a comprehensive cadaver acquisition policy that describes the procedure and personnel in charge of procuring cadavers. There is no&nbsp; specified documented protocol or guideline for cadaver acquisition in the Kenya anatomy act.&nbsp; </p> 2023-10-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023