Anatomy Journal of Africa 2023-10-09T11:48:18+00:00 Prof. Julius Ogeng’o Open Journal Systems <p class="style48"><em>Anatomy Journal<span class="apple-converted-space"> </span>of<span class="apple-converted-space"> </span>Africa</em><span class="apple-converted-space"> </span>is the Official Journal for the <strong>Association of Anatomical Societies of Africa</strong>. This journal has its editorial office based at the department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, and has biannual issues (January and July issues).</p> <p class="style48">We accept and publish a wide variety of papers including:<span class="apple-converted-space"> </span><em><br /><em>- Applied anatomy - Clinical anatomy - Morphology,</em><span class="apple-converted-space"> </span><em>- Embryology - Anatomical techniques and Variant anatomy.</em></em></p> <p class="style48">See the journal's website here: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-saferedirecturl=";source=gmail&amp;ust=1691226487428000&amp;usg=AOvVaw0QbXsCqk8cCjls_Albxxcr">https://anatomyafrica.<wbr />com/index.php/aja/index</a></p> Reducing the risk of nuclear war- the role of healthcare professionals 2023-10-09T09:43:17+00:00 Kamran Abbasi Parveen Ali Virginia Barbour Kirsteen Bibbins-Domingo Marcel G.M. Olde Rikkert Andy Haines Ira Helfland Ricard Horton Robert Mash Arun Mitra Carlos Monteiro Elena N. Naumova Eric J. Rubin Tilman Ruff Peush Sahni James Tumwine Paul Yonga Chris Zielinki <p>No Abstract</p> 2023-10-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Age estimation using orthopantomograms and Demirjian method among children attending dental clinics in western Kenya 2023-10-09T10:09:21+00:00 Ode Brian Immaculate Opondo Walter Adero Willis Oyieko Domnic Marera <p><strong>Background</strong>: Various methods have been used to estimate age in different populations among them being Demirjian which has widely&nbsp; been utilized. However, in Kenya, there is hardly any approved method that can be used to achieve this purpose, hence the need to&nbsp; determine the available methods for estimating the age of children in Western Kenya. Therefore, this study aimed at estimating&nbsp; radiological age using Demirjian method among children attending dental clinics in Western Kenya.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The study adopted a cross- sectional descriptive design and used Yamane Taro (1967) formulae to find a sample size of 171 panoramic radiographs of children aged&nbsp; between 5-17 years which were examined in order to determine the tooth maturity stages (A-H) for the first seven mandibular teeth on&nbsp; the left side. Each maturity stage was then assigned a corresponding maturity score as per Demirjian conversion tables for boys and girls,&nbsp; summed up and converted into dental age. Descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, standard error of mean was&nbsp; presented in tables and graphs while inferential statistics such as linear regression was used to measure the deviation and test of&nbsp; significance.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The overall mean dental age was 8.16 ± 2.7 with a standard error of mean of 0.211. The female and male mean dental age deviated from the chronological age at ±2.22 years and ±1.68 years respectively at 95% Confidence interval.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In&nbsp; conclusion, the study revealed an underestimation of the dental age from chronological age using Demirjian method among children of&nbsp; African origin.&nbsp;&nbsp; </p> 2023-10-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Vertebral changes in the lumbar spine of adults presenting with chronic low back pain at a Referral Hospital in western Kenya 2023-10-09T10:15:49+00:00 Papa Imade Stellah Adero Sulman Walter Domnic Marera Otieno Washington Masoni Isaac <p><strong>Background</strong>: Chronic low back pain is a common musculoskeletal symptom affecting the lower part of the spine. It is described as pain&nbsp; and discomfort around the lumbar region lasting for more than twelve weeks. The symptoms of chronic low back pain might range from&nbsp; a dull ache to a stubbing or shooting sensation. This nature of pain may be localized around the axial region or radiate to the lower limbs&nbsp; affecting the patients’ daily activities. The aim of this study, therefore, was to evaluate vertebral changes in the lumbar spine of adults&nbsp; presenting with chronic low back pain at Kakamega County General and Referral Hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This was a cross-sectional&nbsp; quantitative descriptive study whereby; patients’ data was collected during patients’ presentation at orthopedic outpatient clinic and MRI&nbsp; department. Purposive sampling of lumbar spine Magnetic resonance imaging scans was used to obtain data. A total of 144 patients&nbsp; were selected using the Yamane Taro formula. Anatomical vertebral changes of the lumbar spine were assessed from the&nbsp; selected MRIs to evaluate the structural causes of chronic low back pain. Descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage were&nbsp; used in analyzing the data.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> It was noted that osteophytes were the most pathological changes causing chronic low back pain&nbsp; while fractures were the least common. Osteophytic changes in the vertebra and desiccation of the intervertebral discs can predispose&nbsp; one to chronic lower back pain.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The study recommends early screening and treatment of lower back pain to avert its&nbsp; sequelae.&nbsp; </p> 2023-10-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The role of sex hormones and ROS values in the control of andrology in male double-spurred Francolin (<i>Francolinus bicalcaratus</i>) 2023-10-09T10:22:24+00:00 Olakunle Olutoye Osinubi Oluwasanmi Olayinka Aina Peter Chuka Ozegbe <p><strong>Background</strong>: This study explored the relationship between andrology, seasonal sex hormone fluctuations, and ROS values in adult male&nbsp; Francolinus bicalcaratus while establishing baseline parameters.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Double-spurred Francolins (n=5 per season) were randomly&nbsp; selected in both dry and rainy seasons from their natural habitat. They were carefully stabilized with dewormer, antibiotics, and&nbsp; multivitamins, then acclimatized for two weeks at the Experimental Animal House, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. The birds were weighed,&nbsp; sedated, and 3 to 5 ml of blood was collected from the jugular vein in lithium heparinized bottles for serum sex hormone analysis. Testes&nbsp; were excised, weighed, washed with a 1.15% KCL solution, and processed for complete andrology and oxidative stress assays.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>:&nbsp; Sperm count, activity, and morphological characteristics peaked during late rainy seasons, coinciding with increased mating and&nbsp; hatchability. This correlated with high serum testosterone and low ROS titres in the testes. Conversely, early dry seasons witnessed&nbsp; declines in serum testosterone, sperm parameters, and hatchability due to increased ROS titres from food scarcity. Late dry seasons saw&nbsp; further declines in sex hormone levels and elevated ROS titres, leading to the absence of sperm cells.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study highlights&nbsp; how sex hormone and ROS titres influence sperm cell viability in double-spurred Francolins, with significant seasonal variations. These factors mainly support spermatogenesis and fertility during the breeding season, characterized by food abundance and cover. Dry&nbsp; season sex hormone values serve as baselines, while wet season sperm count and ROS levels represent baseline data for this bird&nbsp; species.&nbsp; </p> 2023-10-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Restorative effects of Silymarin milk thistle on the liver following paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in adult albino rats 2023-10-09T10:27:02+00:00 Davis Kiprono Ngetich Scolastica Korir Molly Okoth <p><strong>Background</strong>: Paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity has been on the rise worldwide and there is a need for restorative measures to&nbsp; counter its effect. Silymarin milk thistle is an herb that has been used for the treatment of liver conditions. This current study aimed at&nbsp; determining the restorative effects of silymarin milk thistle on the liver morphology and terminal body weight of paracetamol-induced&nbsp; hepatotoxicity among albino rats.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: This study was conducted at Maseno University, and a posttest-only experimental&nbsp; design was used. A total of 24 adult albino rats were randomly selected and grouped into four groups, each consisting of six albino rats. Positive control received (5 days of high-dose paracetamol 750mg/kbwt) and negative control received no drug intervention. Three&nbsp; experimental groups received high-dose paracetamol for five days and were thereafter given varying doses of silymarin milk thistle (low- dose group: 200 mg/kbwt, medium-dose: 400 mg/kbwt and high-dose: 600 mg/kbwt) of silymarin milk thistle. Gross liver morphological&nbsp; data and body weight were expressed as mean ± SEM. A one-way ANOVA analysis of variance was used to test the mean groups and a&nbsp; post hoc test was used to test the difference between the mean groups. A p ≤ 0.05 was found to have statistical significance at a 95%&nbsp; confidence interval.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> This current study found that there was a significant (p≤ 0.0001) increase in mean weight, volume, length,&nbsp; and width of the liver in the high dose silymarin milk thistle group as compared to the positive control group. There was a significant (p≤&nbsp; 0.0001) reduction in the terminal mean body weight of the rats in the positive control group, low dose silymarin group and the medium&nbsp; dose silymarin group respectively, as compared to the negative control group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Silymarin milk thistle was found to have&nbsp; restorative effects on the liver morphology and body weight following paracetamol toxicity at high dose.&nbsp; </p> 2023-10-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Testicular morphological evaluations in Sprgue-Dawley rats under an antitussive dextromethorphan 2023-10-09T10:32:54+00:00 Adebajo Adesina Oluwaseye Gbotolorun Stella Chinwe Oremosu Ademola Ayodele <p><strong>Background</strong>: Dextromethorphan is the dextrorotatory enantiomer of the methyl ether of levorphanol, an opioid analgesic. It is also a&nbsp; stereoisomer of levomethorphan, an opioid analgesic and has been reported to affect male fertility by altering the cytoarchitecture of the&nbsp; seminiferous tubules and affect hormones that are responsible for fecundity in males. The aim of this study is to determine the&nbsp; possible morphological alterations in males following exposure to dextromethorphan, using Sprague-Dawley rats as experimental&nbsp; models.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A total of twenty rats (150 ± 30 g) divided into four groups (N=5; A-D) were used. Group A, control received distilled&nbsp; water (DW); group B received 20 mg/kg of the drug, group C received 40 mg/kg and group D received 80 mg/kg of DM for a duration of&nbsp; 16 weeks. At the end of treatment period, the animals were selected and sacrificed, the following histomorphometric parameters were analyzed: diameter and height of the seminiferous tubule and epididymis, volume of testes and the number of spermatogonia,&nbsp; spermatocytes and spermatids within the seminiferous tubules.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Significant reduction in all the Histomorphometric parameters&nbsp; were recorded when treatment groups were compared to control but when recovery-alone group was compared to treatment groups,&nbsp; slight increases were recorded.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: DM has deleterious effect on the morphometric parameters analyzed from the epididymis&nbsp; and testes.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </p> 2023-10-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 <i>Curcuma longa</i> renal historestorative effects on sildenafil induced nephrotoxicity among male albino rats 2023-10-09T10:38:09+00:00 Khisa Wanjala Allan Spencer Opiyo Oyugi Atanas Malik Nyabola <p><strong>Background</strong>: Sildenafil is a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor mostly used in management of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary&nbsp; hypertension. On the other hand, <em>Curcuma longa</em> is herbal plant that is mostly used in diets among the Asian and African population and&nbsp; commonly used in treatment of respiratory, renal and dermatological diseases.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A post-test only true experimental study design&nbsp; was utilized with 25 Albino rats grouped as follows: negative control, positive control (sildenafil 1µg/g bwt), low dose<em> Curcuma&nbsp; longa</em> (38.75mg/kg), medium dose <em>Curcuma longa</em> (77.5mg/kg) and high dose <em>Curcuma longa</em> (155mg/kg) each having 5 rats. Induction of&nbsp; nephrotoxicity using sildenafil was done for 15 days with an interim sacrifice for negative and positive control groups done on day 15.&nbsp; Experimental groups were sacrificed on day 22 after receiving <em>Curcuma longa</em> at respective doses. Blood samples for renal function tests&nbsp; were obtained on day 1, 15 and 22. Enblock harvesting of the kidneys after euthanizing the rats with concentrated CO<sub>2</sub> and 10% neutral&nbsp; buffered formalin perfusion was done on day 15 and 22 then fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for 24hours. The kidneys were then&nbsp; processed for Hematoxylin and Eosin staining and photomicrographs were taken using Olympus light microscope fitted with LABOMED&nbsp; ivu 3100 digital camera.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In sildenafil induced nephrotoxicity group; glomerulus was distorted, dilated bowman`s space, dilated&nbsp; renal tubules and necrotic epithelial cells. Minimal histological changes were observed in low Curcuma longa dose group while in&nbsp; medium and high <em>Curcuma longa</em> dose groups; the glomerulus had well defined margins, bowman`s space reduced in size, epithelial cells&nbsp; appeared normal.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: It can be concluded that medium and high dose <em>Curcuma longa</em> have kidney historestorative effects in&nbsp; sildenafil induced nephrotoxicity among male albino rats.&nbsp;&nbsp; </p> 2023-10-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Morphological variations of the pterion among skulls at the Galloway Osteological Collection in the Department of Human Anatomy Makerere University 2023-10-09T10:49:43+00:00 Joyce Nabukalu Kiwanuka James Okello Michael Kirum G. Gonzaga Erisa Mwaka Joseph Ochieng <p><strong>Background</strong>: The pterion is an important anatomical landmark in anatomy, neurosurgery, radiology, and forensic examinations. The&nbsp; region is prone to damage following blunt trauma of the head. Although the structure varies with age, sex and ethnicity, this has not&nbsp; been documented in the Ugandan setting. The study set out to describe the morphological variations of the pterion among skulls in the&nbsp; Galloway Osteological Collection at the Department of Anatomy, Makerere University.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This was a descriptive cross-sectional&nbsp; study that examined human skulls for the type of pterion, the distance between the center of the pterion and mid zygomatic arch, and&nbsp; the distance between the center of the pterion and the frontozygomatic suture. The measurements were conducted using a digital&nbsp; Vernier caliper. Data was analyzed using the Welch t-test and student t-test.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 65 skulls were studied, the sphenoparietal&nbsp; type of pterion was the commonest 65.4%. The pterion in females was located more posteriorly from the frontozygomatic suture&nbsp; compared to that of males, however the p-value was 0.10. The distance from pterion to zygomatic arch and frontozygomatic suture&nbsp; showed variations with age and nationality.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The Pterion exhibited variations which need to be considered during&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; examinations and operations of the region.</p> 2023-10-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Pattern of musculocutaneous and median nerve communication in adult cadavers 2023-10-09T11:07:03+00:00 Mya Thein Shin Phone Myint Htoo <p><strong>Background</strong>: Variations in connections between the musculocutaneous and median nerves in the arm are not as uncommon as was once&nbsp; thought. Lesions of the communicating nerve may give rise to patterns of weakness that may impose difficulty in diagnosis.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this study is to determine the variation of the musculocutaneous nerve (MCN) and analyze the incidence of nerve&nbsp; communication between the musculocutaneous and median nerves.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Anatomical dissection was performed in the present work&nbsp; by using 62 arms from 31 adult cadavers, age ranging from eighteen to eighty years, which was donated to Medical Universities in&nbsp; Myanmar. Among the 62 studied arms, 26 arms (41.9%) were male, and 36 arms (58.1%) were female.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Nerve variation patterns&nbsp; were seen in four out of 62 studied arms (6.4%) and one arm (1.6%) showed no musculocutaneous nerve. One out of 62 studied arms&nbsp; (1.6%) revealed the musculocutaneous nerve did not pierce the coracobrachialis muscles but communicated with the median nerve in the&nbsp; upper third of arm. One out 62 studied arms (1.6%) revealed a musculocutaneous nerve piercing the coracobrachialis muscle and&nbsp; communicated with the median nerve in the upper third of arm. Communicating branch was found in two upper limbs (3.22%).&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The knowledge of these variations will allow physicians to correctly interpret anomalous innervation patterns of the upper limb.</p> 2023-10-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Protective effect of <i>Rosemarinus officinalis</i> on gentamicin-induced acute kidney injury in adult male albino rats 2023-10-09T11:13:40+00:00 Kennedy Wanyonyi Waswa Domnic Marera Scolastica Korir Isaac Masoni <p><strong>Background</strong>: Gentamicin (GN) drug is one of the first-line drugs for managing severe gramnegative bacteria. Its association with acute kidney injury (AKI) has restricted its use due to oxidation damage to kidney architectural structures. <em>Rosmarinus Officinalis</em> (rosemary) is a<br>natural antioxidant available and affordable in many developing countries. Antioxidants can be used to prevent oxidation that causes AKI&nbsp; in GN use. This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective gross morphological effect of <em>Rosmarinus Officinalis</em> (RO) on Gentamicin- induced acute Kidney injury in male albino rats’ species of <em>Rattus norvegicus</em>.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: The study was done in Kenya at Maseno&nbsp; University. A posttest true experimental design was used, and a sample size of 25 Albino rats was calculated using a resource-modified&nbsp; equation. Rats were randomly sampled into 5 groups, each with 5 albino rats. The negative control group received a standard rat diet&nbsp; plus water, the positive control received GN100,mg/kg/bwt/i.p, low-dose RO, medium-dose RO, and high-dose RO groups received&nbsp; 100,150 and 200 mg/kg/bwt of RO orally, respectively, and were co-administered with GN 100mg/kg/bwt/i.p. At the end of day seven, they were humanely sacrificed, and gross morphometric were taken.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: It was observed that the mean weight of the rat, weight,&nbsp; and volume of the kidney increased significantly (p= 0.001) in high-dose RO group as compared to the positive control. The mean length&nbsp; and thickness in high-dose RO group increased significantly (p=0.0001) as compared to the positive control.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This present&nbsp; study shows that co-administration of a high dose of RO has a protective effect on gross morphology against Gentamicin-induced AKI&nbsp; among male albino rats.&nbsp; </p> 2023-10-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Determinants of cadaver acquisition at Human Anatomy Learning Institutions in Kenya 2023-10-09T11:39:50+00:00 Benard Siwa Walter Adero Willis Oyieko Domnic Marera Kevin Ongeti <p><strong>Background</strong>: Human anatomy instruction in Kenya is based on dissection of cadavers during practical sessions. Institutions get these&nbsp; cadavers using procedures available to them. However, the processes used are not standardized, and several problems are likely to&nbsp; develop during the cadaver acquisition process. Several factors appear to have an impact on the source, availability, and cadaver&nbsp; collection techniques. Some of the issues affecting cadaver acquisition may not be sufficiently addressed by current anatomy practice&nbsp; guidelines. This study evaluated the determinants of cadaver acquisition at human anatomy learning institutions in Kenya.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:&nbsp;</strong> Anatomists and anatomy laboratory personnel handling cadavers in Kenya were interviewed for the study. A cross-sectional study design&nbsp; was used, as well as a purposive sampling strategy. The self-administered surveys were completed by 68 study participants. The data was&nbsp; tallied, loaded into SPSS version 26 for analysis, then plotted into graphs and tables for interpretation.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Cadavers were mostly&nbsp; acquired from unclaimed bodies (100%). In most situations (80.9%), anatomy laboratory technicians oversee cadaver collection. A&nbsp; cadaver acquisition delay of more than two weeks was reported by 80.88% of respondents. According to 44.12% of respondents, the&nbsp; biggest reason for cadaver collecting delays was the need for financial compensation. Most cadavers (98.5%) are obtained through&nbsp; lobbying at the source. According to 92.6% of responders, defaced or damaged cadavers are mostly rejected. According to 94.2% of&nbsp; respondents, the Kenya Anatomy Act has no instructions on how to obtain cadavers.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The efficiency of cadaver acquisition is&nbsp; affected by several factors that affect both the procedure and the people in charge of procuring the cadavers. Institutions in Kenya lack a comprehensive cadaver acquisition policy that describes the procedure and personnel in charge of procuring cadavers. There is no&nbsp; specified documented protocol or guideline for cadaver acquisition in the Kenya anatomy act.&nbsp; </p> 2023-10-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023