Anatomy Journal of Africa <p class="style48"><em>Anatomy Journal<span class="apple-converted-space"> </span>of<span class="apple-converted-space"> </span>Africa</em><span class="apple-converted-space"> </span>is the Official Journal for the <strong>Association of Anatomical Societies of Africa</strong>. This journal has its editorial office based at the department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, and has biannual issues (January and July issues).</p> <p class="style48">We accept and publish a wide variety of papers including:<span class="apple-converted-space"> </span><em><br /><em>- Applied anatomy - Clinical anatomy - Morphology,</em><span class="apple-converted-space"> </span><em>- Embryology - Anatomical techniques and Variant anatomy.</em></em></p> <p class="style48">See the journal's website here: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-saferedirecturl=";source=gmail&amp;ust=1691226487428000&amp;usg=AOvVaw0QbXsCqk8cCjls_Albxxcr">https://anatomyafrica.<wbr />com/index.php/aja/index</a></p> Association of Anatomical Societies of Africa en-US Anatomy Journal of Africa 2226-6054 The copyright of this journal belongs to the <span lang="EN-GB">Association of Anatomical Societies of Africa.</span> Histo-inhibitory effects of <i>Warbugia ugandensis</i> on high fat diet induced atherosclerosis in New Zealand rabbits <p>Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by accumulation of plaque within a blood vessel. <em>W. ugandensis</em> has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits therefore it might play an important role in histo-inhibition of atherosclerosis. This was a posttest only true experimental design in which 30 male New Zealand rabbits were used. Systematic random sampling method was used in recruiting and assigning the animals into control and experimental groups. <em>W. ugandens</em>is extract was obtained, phytochemical analysis and acute oral toxicity was done to determine safe dose. The animals were fed on high fat diet to induce atherosclerosis. The mean area fraction of Atorvastatin and W. ugandensis histo-inhibitory group significantly reduced as compared to vehicle control group. On histological analysis, histo-inhibitory group had a fatty streak within the tunica intima characterized by foam cells that accumulated lipids in their cytoplasm while the atorvastatin histo-inhibitory group had less pronounced fatty streak. Therefore, it can be concluded that <em>W. ugandensis</em> has positive histo-inhibitory effects characterized by failure of formation of atherosclerotic lesion.</p> Spencer Opiyo Oyugi Paul Mboya Kosiyo Domnic Oduor Marera Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-12 2024-04-12 13 1 2253 2260 10.4314/aja.v13i1.4 Attenuative effects of <i>Rosmarinus officinalis</i> on gentamicin-induced acute kidney injury among adult male albino rats <p>Gentamicin (GN) is one the first-line drugs for managing severe gram-negative bacterial infections in low-income populations, but its association with acute kidney injury (AKI) has limited its use in clinical applications. <em>Rosmarinus Officinalis</em> (rosemary) is a traditional herb rich in antioxidants, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the histological effect of <em>Rosmarinus Officinalis</em> (RO) on GN has not yet been explicated. The study investigated the protective histological effect of RO on gentamicin induced acute Kidney injury in adult male albino rats of <em>Rattus norvegicus</em>. This study used a total of 25 rats that were systematically randomized into 5 groups of five rats each: Control received rat pellets plus water ad libitum, GN (100mg/kg/bwt/i.p), low dose RO (RO100mg/kg/bwt/po +GN), medium RO(150mg/kg/bwt/po+GN) ,and high dose RO(200mg/kg/bwt/po+GN). GN was administered intraperitoneal and RO orally for seven days. Albino rats were humanely sacrificed after 24hours of the last drug administration, blood collected for biomarkers and kidney harvested for histological examination. Histological findings in the low RO, medium RO, and gentamicin groups; the glomerulus shrunken, proximal convoluted tubules and Bowman's space were dilated, respectively, whereas those in the high-dose RO and control groups were normal and comparable.<br>This study shows that Co-administration of a high dose of RO attenuates histological effects of Gentamicin-induced AKI among Male albino rats.</p> Kennedy Wanyonyi Waswa Scolastica Korir Isaac Masoni Allan Khisa Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-12 2024-04-12 13 1 2561 2568 10.4314/aja.v13i1.8 Therapeutic potentials of <i>Vernonia amygdalina</i> in thioacetamide-induced neurotoxicity in the CA1 hippocampal subfield via inhibition of microglial activation <p>Thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic encephalopathy (HE) has been reported in several studies. Sequel to acute or chronic liver failure, there is impairment in the hippocampal structure and hippocampal-mediated functions. The precise pathophysiological mechanism leading to neurological alterations remains elusive. The hippocampus also has rarely been examined in HE, hence this study. <em>Vernonia amygdalina</em> (VA) which possesses diverse biological activities has been studied and has promising therapeutic potential in several neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective activities of <em>Vernonia amygdalina</em> against thioacetamide-induced neuronal damage in the CA1 region of the hippocampus in the rat model. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups A-E (n=6). Group A (control) was the placebo and was administered 2mL/kg distilled water, group B was administered 100mg/kg thioacetamide only. Groups C-E were administered 100mg/kg of thioacetamide and were subsequently treated with 100mg/kg VA, 200mg/kg VA, and 3mg/kg vitamin C respectively. All administration was carried out for 14 days duration orally. Neurobehavioral tests were conducted. Required brain tissues for biochemical analyses were harvested following rat sacrifice. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and hippocampal Glutamate levels were evaluated. Histological stains (H&amp;E and cresyl violet) and immunohistochemical expression of Iba-1 protein (microglial marker) were used to assess neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the CA1 subfield. Statistical analyses were carried out using Graph pad prism 5 and all results were expressed as Mean±SEM. Means differences were identified by Tukey’s post hoc test. Statistical significance was set at (p&lt; 0.05). The neurobehavioral test results showed an observable increase in anxiety and impaired spatial working memory of the Wistar rats while glutamate (p = 0.6187; F =0.6844) and G6PDH activity (p = 0.6187; F= 0.9486) were not significantly different across groups. Thioacetamide treatment also resulted in neuroinflammation vis-à-vis microglial activation, causing neurodegeneration in the CA1 subfield. <em>Vernonia amygdalina </em>treatment ameliorated these neurotoxic changes. Altogether, <em>Vernonia amygdalina</em> treatment ameliorated thioacetamide-induced neurotoxicity in the CA1 region of the hippocampus via anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective mechanisms.</p> Taiye S. Adelodun Ayodeji Z. Abijo Osuoha O. Maryjane Sunday Y. Olatunji Arayombo B. Elijah Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-12 2024-04-12 13 1 2569 2584 10.4314/aja.v13i1.10 Variation in origin and course of brachial artery among black African population: Cadaveric study in Western Kenya <p><strong>Background:</strong> Brachial artery (BA) is the main arterial supply to upper limb, it’s a direct continuation of axillary artery at the lower border of teres major and gives of profunda brachii which is the largest branch, superior ulnar collateral artery, inferior ulnar collateral artery, nutrient artery and muscular branches. BA presents with a lot of anatomical variants as reported by several authors though there is paucity of data on this variant anatomy among black African population. The current study evaluated variation in origin and course of brachial artery among black African population.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in three universities, in western Kenya due to their well-established functional Human Anatomy laboratory used by medical students. The study involved 77 cadavers (n=154 upper limbs) of 39 males and 38 females obtained through stratified sampling technique. Data collected was collated in excel sheet and analyzed using statistical package of social sciences (SPSS) version 26.0. Descriptive statistics was used to assess frequency distribution of variant origin while Chi square was used to determine difference in proportion of normal origin and cumulative variation of BA regards with to laterality of the upper limb. Brachium region was exposed to access the brachial artery where origin and its course was assessed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 154 upper limbs examined 3.8% had variation in origin of brachial artery, 2.6% showed superficial origin and superficial course of brachial artery terminating into its terminal branches. However, this variation was not statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: There were variations in origin of brachial artery among black African population, these variations were more on the right upper limb than the left upper limb, though not statistically significant but clinically significant, hence health care professionals, anatomists and medical students should be made aware of such variants when performing invasive procedures to avoid complications, misdiagnosis and any medical errors that might occur as a result of such variants. Understanding existence of such variants leads to good patient care and outcome after surgical and radiological procedures thus reducing misdiagnosis and mismanagement of patients.<br><br></p> Oyale Warren Ayonga Willis Oyieko Paul Kosiyo Domnic Marera Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-12 2024-04-12 13 1 2585 2592 10.4314/aja.v13i1.13 Anatomical study of the morphometry of portal caudate veins <p>The caudate lobe is a relatively unknown part of the liver due to its location and many variations. The caudate lobe is a separate entity that is located behind the trunk of the portal vein.It constitutes the hepatic dorsal area that comprises of only segment I. Thus, this lobe can be vascularized by caudate veins (CV) born either from the right branch of the portal vein (PV),from the left branch or from both. Therefore, the work allows us to study the morphometry of caudate veins. Based on the exploitation of vascular mussels of the inferior vena cava and the portal vein after injection-corrosion of the liver, the study conducted from April 2018 to March 2019 involved 41 livers of which 30 were exploited for caudate veins. These were from fresh adult subjects, both sexes free of any hepatobilio-pancreatic pathology or trauma. The injection-corrosion parts of his vascular mussels included the hepatobasement junction and the hepatic pedicle. The PV and its right and left branches provided accessory caudate branches for the caudate lobe at the level of the hepatic hilum. Thus, for all livers, we found 102 branches cauded by accessories. The accessory caudate veins were born either from the left branch of the PV in 28 livers out of 30 (93.37% ), by 1 to 4 vessels with an average distance between its branches and the portal bifurcation being 17 mm with extremes ranging from 7 to 39 mm; either from the right branch of the PV in 23 livers out of 30(76.6%), by 1 to 3 vessels with an average distance of 12.9 mm between its branches and the portal bifurcation, with extremes ranging from 9 to 18 mm. The stem of the portal vein gave branches to the caudate lobe in 11 livers on 30(36.6%),by 1 to 2 vessels whose diameter varied from 1 mm to 3 mm. We studied on 30 liver samples the anatomical variations related to CV. This is a contribution to the fundamental foundations of liver removal surgery because too little work (and often radiological) exists in Africa on the subject. However, this lack of comparative anthropometric data confirms the diversity of anatomical variations in caudate veins. On the therapeutic level these anatomical data contribute to the peri-operative safety of liver surgery.</p> Yacouba Garba Karim C. Elmaslouhi Assane Ndiaye Ahmadou Deme Rachid Sani Jean Marc Ndoye Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-12 2024-04-12 13 1 2593 2597 10.4314/aja.v13i1.14 Prof Hassan Saidi seven years on: a legacy of medical training transcending time <p>No abstract</p> David Karuri Julius Ogeng’o Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-12 2024-04-12 13 1 2547 2548 10.4314/aja.v13i1.1 The evolving application of human anatomy pedagogy and research <p>No abstract</p> Khulud Nurani Vincent Kipkorir Jimmy Njoroge Kevin Ongeti Julius Ogeng'o Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 13 1 2549 2552 10.4314/aja.v13i1.2