Anatomy Journal of Africa <p class="style48"><em>Anatomy Journal<span class="apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span>of<span class="apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span>Africa</em><span class="apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span>is the Official Journal for the&nbsp;<strong>Association of Anatomical Societies of Africa</strong>. This journal has its editorial office based at the department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, and has biannual issues (January and July issues).</p> <p class="style48">We accept and publish a wide variety of papers including:<span class="apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span><em><br><em>- Applied anatomy - Clinical anatomy - Morphology,</em><span class="apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span><em>- Embryology - Anatomical techniques and Variant anatomy.</em></em></p> Association of Anatomical Societies of Africa en-US Anatomy Journal of Africa 2226-6054 The copyright of this journal belongs to the <span lang="EN-GB">Association of Anatomical Societies of Africa.</span> COP27 climate change conference: Urgent action needed for Africa and the world <p>No Abstract.</p> Friday Okonofua Chris Zielinski Lilia Zakhama Paul Yonga Mohammad Sahar Yassien James Tumwine Abdelmadjid Snouber Siaka Sidibé Maha El-Adawy Arash Rashidian Gregory E. Erhabor David Ofori- Adjei Fhumulani Mavis Mulaudzi Joy Muhia Bob Mash Laurie Laybourn-Langton James Kigera Jean-Marie Kayembe Ntumba Abraham Haileamlak Aiah A. Gbakima Copyright (c) 2022-12-06 2022-12-06 11 2 2153 2156 10.4314/aja.v11i2.1 Horseshoe kidney: A case report and review of literature <p>The horseshoe kidney (HK) is a very rare renal malformation. It designates a transposition by fusion of the parenchymas of the two poles of the kidney. Its discovery is incidental to an autopsy. However, it is most often asymptomatic. Thus, we report a case of horseshoe kidney accidental discovery in a 58-&nbsp; year-old man. We take this opportunity to review the literature on embryological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of this malformation, which is one of&nbsp; the renal ectopies diagnosed in sub-Saharan Africa.</p> Yacouba Garba Karim James Yaovi-Edem Mar Ndeye Bigue Ndormadjita Allah-Syengar Ndiaye Assane Ndiaye Abdoulaye Ndoye Jean-Marc Copyright (c) 2022-12-06 2022-12-06 11 2 2157 2166 10.4314/aja.v11i2.2 Ultrasonography of fetal kidney length as the approach for estimation of gestational age in Sudanese <p>A true estimation of gestational age (GA) plays an important role in quality maternity care and scheduling the labor date. This study was to evaluate the&nbsp; application of kidney length (KL) measurement to the determine GA between the 14th and 40th weeks and to compare its accuracy with that of other&nbsp; fetal biometric indices. This study has been designed as a prospective descriptive cross-sectional study in Khartoum and Gezira states - Sudan. 389&nbsp; Sudanese healthy pregnant women, age between 15 – 45 years were examined by ultrasound with normal and wellbeing fetuses. Linear regression&nbsp; models for estimation of GA were derived from the biometric indices and kidney length. Also, stepwise regression models were constructed to detect the&nbsp; best model for determining GA between 14 and 40 weeks. Comparisons were then made between the accuracy of these models in the determination of&nbsp; GA. The equations derived from linear regression analysis when the individual variables were considered separately. Among the variable parameters&nbsp; considered in this study, the most accurate was the kidney length with a standard error (SE) of (0.04) day, after that the biparietal diameter with (SE=0.10&nbsp; day) and femur length, (SE=0.13 day). While the least accurate one was the abdominal circumference with an SE of 1.35 days. A significant correlation was&nbsp; found between GA and KL (r=0.72, P&lt;0.002). The Kidney length is the easy to identify and measure. It is the most accurate parameter for estimating&nbsp; GA than other biometric indices in late 2nd and 3rd trimesters.&nbsp;</p> Mohamed O. Mustafa Qurashi. M. Ali Mohamed Haleeb Kamoleldin Badawey Mohammed A.A. Abdelmotalab Copyright (c) 2022-12-07 2022-12-07 11 2 2167 2174 10.4314/aja.v11i2.3 Histomorphological and biochemical alterations on the liver of Wistar rats following co-administration of NSAIDs (Piroxicam, Diclofenac and Ibuprofen) <p>Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are an important therapeutic class of drugs widely used to suppress acute or chronic pains and&nbsp; inflammatory diseases such as in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis (OS) etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the random combination and&nbsp; individual effect of COX-2 inhibitors (NSAIDs) on the liver. This study was conducted using a total of 40 adults Wistar rats. The rats were divided into eight&nbsp; groups of 5 rats each. Group one was the control group, group 2 was given piroxicam (0.29mg/kg) daily, group 3 was given ibuprofen (5.71mg/kg) daily,&nbsp; and group 4 received diclofenac (1.42mg/kg) daily. Group 5 received piroxicam (0.29mg/kg bodyweight) plus ibuprofen (0.58mg/kg), group 6 received&nbsp; piroxicam (0.29mg/kg) plus diclofenac (1.42mg/kg) and group 7 received ibuprofen (0.58mg/kg) plus diclofenac (1.42mg/kg) respectively daily. Group 8&nbsp; was given Piroxicam (0.29mg/kg bodyweight) plus Ibuprofen (5.71mg/kg) plus diclofenac (1.42mg/kg) daily. Intervention was over a period of 3days.&nbsp; Animals were sacrificed after 24 hours and the liver tissues were excised, some were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histological studies while&nbsp; others were placed in normal saline for biochemical analysis. The results revealed that there was no significant statistical difference in total bilirubin, ALT&nbsp; and AST when compared to the control. This suggests that NSAIDs may have no significant effects on the liver for this regimen. Histological changes&nbsp; observed were congested portal vein, haemorrhagic bile ducts, distortion of portal triad and sinusoids, and degeneration of hepatocytes. In conclusion,&nbsp; NSAIDs may have harmful effect on the cytoarchitecture of the liver which can lead to liver damage especially when given in high doses and in&nbsp; combination, but however it had no effect on liver function.&nbsp;</p> Idorenyin Udo Umoh Samuel Joseph Umanah Glory Ibanga Obot Mabel Offiong Asukwo Godstreasure Mbakaraobong Effiokette Akwa Iniubong Inam Copyright (c) 2022-12-07 2022-12-07 11 2 2175 2184 10.4314/aja.v11i2.4 Study of variations in the broncho-arterial pedicles of the upper right lung lobe <p>Bronchial distribution and functional arterial vascularization of the upper lobe of the right lung are subject to many anatomical variations. The control of&nbsp; these variations is essential for endoscopic and agiographic examinations. It also offers a better guarantee for safe and controlled surgery. In this&nbsp; preliminary work, the exploitation of 15 heart-lung blocks treated by the injection corrosion method allowed us to study the general arrangement of the&nbsp; broncho-arteries of the right upper lung lobe and their anatomical variations in the Senegalese population. Our results were as follows: the right upper&nbsp; lobar bronchus was born on average at 1.25 cm from the tracheal bifurcation, with an average length of 1.13 cm. It ended with trifurcation into apical&nbsp; (B1), dorsal (B2) and ventral (B3) segmental bronchi in 10 cases (66.66%); in 3 cases (20%), it ended with bifurcation into the dorsal segmental bronchus&nbsp; and the apico-ventral trunk (B1+B3) (1 case), the apico-dorsal trunk (B1+B2) and the ventral segmental bronchus (B3), finally, in ventral and dorsal&nbsp; segmentary bronchi giving each one an apical branch (1 case); in a last case, it ended by quadrifurcation, giving an external parabronche. The right upper&nbsp; lobe was vascularized by 1 to 4 arteries, with eight modes of vascularization. It received more frequently two arteries. The anterior mediastinal&nbsp; artery was the most common (100%). These results allowed us to discuss anatomical variations in the bronchial tree of the right upper lung lobe and the&nbsp; pulmonary arterial distribution in that lobe. These variations must be taken into account during endoscopic examinations of imaging and surgery of&nbsp; pulmonary excision, under penalty of accidents.&nbsp;</p> Ndeye Bigué Mar Garba Karim Yacouba Cheikh Seye Issa Dior Seck Racky Wade Mamadou Ndiaye Daouda Tireira Sokhna Astou Thiam Magaye Gaye Aïnina Ndiaye Philippe Manyacka Ma Nyemb Jean Marc Ndiaga Ndoye Mamadou Diop Abdoulaye Ndiaye Assane Ndiaye Copyright (c) 2022-12-07 2022-12-07 11 2 2185 2192 10.4314/aja.v11i2.5 An unusual median nerve formation; A case report and literature review <p>The Median nerve anatomical variation is commonly encountered. During the dissection of about 65 years of formalin-fixed male cadaver at the&nbsp; Department of Human Anatomy at National University Faculty of Medicine for undergraduate students in 2016-2017, the left upper limb showed that the&nbsp; median nerve was formed by the union of the three roots. However, the third root arose from the musculocutaneous nerve inside the coracobrachialis&nbsp; muscle, perforating the lower part of the muscle and joining the median nerve at the middle of the arm region. Knowledge of these variations is useful&nbsp; clinically, especially when evaluating symptoms of upper limb trauma, and it is also useful when performing surgical approaches.&nbsp;</p> Abdelsalam Ahmed Abdelmotalab Mohammed QM Ali Copyright (c) 2022-12-08 2022-12-08 11 2 2193 2196 10.4314/aja.v11i2.6 A cadaveric study of first dorsal extensor compartment in Africans: Clinical implications <p>While several reports have been made regarding the anatomic variations in the first dorsal extensor compartment, very few have emanated from Africa.&nbsp; This study looked at this compartment with respect to variations in the superficial branch of the radial nerve and the enclosed tendons. The first dorsal&nbsp; extensor compartment of the hand was studied in 32 formalin preserved adult African cadavers. The superficial branch of the radial nerve emerged from&nbsp; underneath the brachioradialis 8.4cm(sd±2.2cm) proximal to the radial styloid and branched 6.2cm (sd ±1.5cm) proximal to it as well. This nerve along&nbsp; with the cephalic vein or its tributary transversed part of the compartment in all the hands. A double Extensor pollicis longus was found in one hand.&nbsp; Septations were observed in 31.3 %(n=10) of the hands. Abductor pollicis longus tendon was fused in three hands, and had more than one slip in 94% of&nbsp; the hands. A single extensor pollicis brevis tendon was found all dissected hands. Clinical implications of these findings are highlighted in this work.&nbsp;</p> Bolaji Oyawale Mofikoya Andrew Omotayo Ugburo Orimisan Belie Copyright (c) 2022-12-08 2022-12-08 11 2 2197 2201 10.4314/aja.v11i2.7 Comparative cytoarchitecture of the midbrain colliculi of defined age groups in the African giant pouched rat (<i>Cricetomys gambianus</i>) <p><strong>Background</strong>: The rostral and <em>caudal colliculi</em> of mammalian midbrain are pivotal to vision and audition, respectively. Cytoarchitecture of these midbrain&nbsp; colliculi in neonate, juvenile and adult African giant pouched rats is dearth.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study compared the histology of the nuclei, neurons and&nbsp; laminations of the colliculi in these age groups.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Thirty-six captive African giant pouched rats consisting of twelve neonates, juveniles and adults were used. Thickness of the histologic layers of&nbsp; the <em>rostral colliculi</em> and lengths of the central nucleus of the caudal colliculi were compared among the groups.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> the rostral colliculus&nbsp; composed of an outermost <em>stratum zonale</em>, middle <em>stratum griseum superficiale</em> and innermost <em>stratum griseum&nbsp; profundus</em>; migratory immature neurons of radial glial cells were observed in the stratum zonale of neonates, which disappeared in juveniles and adults;&nbsp; the <em>stratum griseum superficiale</em> of neonates was characterized of already formed neurites, similar to those of the juveniles and adults. However, this&nbsp; layer in adults had more oligodendrocytes than in juveniles. There was significant increase in thickness of the<em> stratum griseum superficiale</em> and <em>stratum&nbsp; griseum profundus</em>, with increasing age (P &lt; 0.05). The <em>caudal colliculus</em> contained a central nucleus, dorsal and lateral cortices, with significant increase&nbsp; in the length of the central nucleus with increasing age (P &lt; 0.05); there was transformation of fibre shaft in the lateral cortex of neonates into a mixture&nbsp; of chain like and marshy matrix in the juveniles which completely disappeared in adults, indicative of mature lateral cortex in the later.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The adult African giant pouched rat may have the best auditory and visual senses, followed by juvenile. The neonate has the least acuity of&nbsp; these senses.</p> Chikera S. Ibe Obioma Ogbonnaya Kenechukwu T. Onwuama Ekele Ikpegbu Copyright (c) 2022-12-08 2022-12-08 11 2 2202 2211 10.4314/aja.v11i2.8 Anatomical study of the internal carotid artery of the aulacode (<i>Thryonomys swindérianus</i>, Temminck 1827) <p>The arterial circle at the base of the skull appears to be supplied only by the vertebrobasilar system. The anatomy of the internal carotid artery is not&nbsp; known. The aim of this study was to contribute to a better understanding of the anatomy of the arterial system of the aulacode. A total of twelve (12)&nbsp; carotid arteries from six (6) grasscutters were injected with neoprene latex to study the origin, path, termination, collateral branches and brain irrigation&nbsp; areas of the. internal carotid artery. Originating from the common carotid artery, the internal carotid arteries, right and left, flowed forward and out to&nbsp; reach the lateral surfaces of the trachea. In the cervical region, they emitted three collateral branches, the posterior laryngeal artery, the artery of the&nbsp; neck muscles, and the encephalic artery. These different arteries supplied the larynx, neck and brain, respectively. The encephalic arteries were either&nbsp; single or double. The arteries of the neck muscles were dividing at their endings or not. The observation of the latex in the brain reflects the participation&nbsp; of the internal carotid artery in the vascularization of the brain, or at least of anastomoses between its branches and those of the external carotid artery&nbsp; or the vertebro-basilar system.</p> Maman You Espérance Broalet Abenin Samson Assi Djibril Ouattara Némé Antoine Tako Copyright (c) 2022-12-08 2022-12-08 11 2 2212 2217 10.4314/aja.v11i2.9 Ameliorative potential of quercetin and rutin on dextromethorphan-induced toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats <p>Dextromethorphan as an antitussive has been reported to have deleterious effect on the testicular function. Quercetin is an extensive class of polyphenolic flavonoid compounds found in plant sources like green vegetables and tea. It is considered to be a strong antioxidant due to its ability scavenge free radicals and bind transition metal ions. Rutin is a flavonoid of the flavonol-type that is found in plant kingdom and a nutritional component of foodstuffs in apples, onions and black tea. In this study, we determined the effect of Quercetin and Rutin on Dextromethorphan-induced toxicity in males using Sprague-Dawley rats as models. Eighty male rats (150 ± 30 g) divided into four (N=20; A-D) were used for a duration of 16 weeks. Group A, control received distilled water (DW); group B-C received 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg of DM respectively. At the end of treatment period, 5 animals were selected and euthanized from each group. Seminal parameters and Hormonal milieu were analysed. The remaining 15 rats were divided into 3 groups (N=5; E-G). They received Quercetin (50 mg/kg) Rutin (25 mg/kg) and DW respectively for 16 weeks to ascertain recovery rate. The rats were sacrificed and the above parameters were analysed. Significant dose-dependent reduction in seminal parameters and hormones was observed in DM- treated groups. An increase in seminal parameters and hormonal milieu was observed when DM- treated and recovery-alone groups were compared to Rutin and Quercetin groups. The supplementation of Rutin and Quercetin showed significant increases in the parameters which could mitigate the toxic effect of Dextromethorphan and in turn translates into improved fertility in males.</p> Oluwaseye A. Adebajo Chinwe S. Gbotolorun Ademola A. Oremosu Perpetual K. Adebajo Joshua H. Ojo Copyright (c) 2022-12-08 2022-12-08 11 2 2218 2223 10.4314/aja.v11i2.10 Alterations in the histology of the prostate of Sprague-Dawley rats treated with oxytocin <p><strong>Background</strong>: The role of oxytocin in female reproductive system has been well studied. Very little is known about the long-term administration of&nbsp; oxytocin in prostatic tissues. This study aimed to assess the histological effects of prolonged administration of exogenous oxytocin on prostate in the&nbsp; male Sprague-Dawley rats.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 180-250g were randomly distributed into four groups A, B, C and D of five rats each. Group A served as the control while groups B to D were the treated groups. Oxytocin was administered intramuscularly two days per week at the doses&nbsp; of 1, 2 and 3 IU/kg/b.w. to groups B, C and D respectively while 0.5ml of physiologic saline was administered to the control. The treatment was carried out&nbsp; over a period of 8 weeks (one spermatogenic cycle). At the end of study, blood was collected for testosterone assay and the prostate was also&nbsp; harvested for histological procedure.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: Result showed significant decrease in the prostatic weight of all the treated groups. However, testosterone significantly increased in group D and&nbsp; the histology revealed moderate to severe stroma fibrosis, high vascularization with vascular congestion which was due to severe infiltration of&nbsp; inflammatory cells in a dose dependent manner.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Prolonged administration of exogenous oxytocin could led to a decrease in prostatic weight. Hence, clinician prescribing oxytocin for the treatment of oligozoospermia should be conscious of the risk of exogenous oxytocin in inducing prostatic disorders.&nbsp;</p> Amos Amoo Odetola Chika Anna Idaguko Copyright (c) 2022-12-08 2022-12-08 11 2 2224 2228 10.4314/aja.v11i2.11 Cytoarchitecture of greater cane rat (<i>Thryonomys swinderianus</i>) habenulae and mammillary body <p>This study was conducted to investigate expression of neurons, glia and connective tissue markers in the habenulae and mammillary body of the Greater&nbsp; Cane Rat (GCR) using histological and immunohistochemical techniques. Four apparently healthy males GCR obtained from Lagos Nigeria were used for&nbsp; this experiment. The brains were harvested after perfusion, carefully dissected and post-fixed in 10% neutral-buffered-formalin (NBF) at 40C for 48 hours.&nbsp; Subsequently, tissue sections were prepared and stained using Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&amp;E), Cresyl-violet, ionized calcium-binding-adapter&nbsp; molecule 1 (Iba1; microglia), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; astrocytes), neuronal nuclei (NeuN; neurons) and collagen type 1 (Collagen1) antibodies.&nbsp; H&amp;E and Cresyl-violet staining showed the neuronal nuclei and their fibres in the habenulae, mammillary body, and pial capsule that surround the&nbsp; mammillary body ventrally. Astrocytes in the habenulae showed positive immunoreaction to anti-GFAP while the mammillary body revealed expression of&nbsp; perivascular astrocytes and capsular astrocytes. Also, in the mammillary body, the perivascular microglia and meningeal microglia in the pial capsule&nbsp; showed immunopositive reaction to anti-Iba1 while the fibres within blood vessels and capsule were immunopositive to collagen type 1 antibody in the&nbsp; same structure. This work has provided the first cytoarchitectural features and clear description of expression of these specific markers in habenulae and&nbsp; mammillary body in the GCR, which are similar to other rodents but with slight variations.&nbsp;</p> Tashara Gilbert Taidinda Eniola Olopade Funmilayo Olukayode Olopade James Copyright (c) 2022-12-08 2022-12-08 11 2 2229 2236 10.4314/aja.v11i2.12 A rare variant branch from the lateral cord and a communicating branch between the musculocutaneous and median nerve <p>During routine educational gross anatomy dissections of the upper extremities, one right upper limb was observed to have an unusual branch from the&nbsp; lateral cord that pierced coracobrachialis towards its origin. This variant branch emerged from the lateral cord before it branched to give its contribution&nbsp; to the median nerve and musculocutaneous nerve in the axilla. The same limb also had a communicating branch between the musculocutaneous nerve&nbsp; to the median nerve at the mid arm level. These variations may be of interest to neurologists, anatomists and surgeons operating in the upper limb&nbsp; region.</p> Felix Njoroge Khulud Nurani Noel Odero Jimmy Njoroge Copyright (c) 2022-12-08 2022-12-08 11 2 2237 2239 10.4314/aja.v11i2.13 TBX 5 gene mutation analysis among Tanzanian children with congenital heart diseases using high-resolution melting assays <p>Early cardiac development is governed by transcription factor genes. TBX5, a T-box transcription factor gene, plays an important role in the development&nbsp; of the second heart field during cardiac septation by promoting cell cycle progression through the enhancement of Cdk6 and hedgehog signaling&nbsp; pathways. TBX5 binds to the promoter region of genes, enhancing the expression of alpha cardiac myosin heavy chain 6 (MYH6), which is a predominant&nbsp; isoform found in human cardiac tissue. TBX5 gene mutations are postulated to cause congenital heart diseases. A casecontrol TBX5 mutational analysis&nbsp; was performed to provide insight into the etiology of sporadic congenital heart diseases in our setting. We used a magnetic induction cycler (mic-PCR),&nbsp; which is a next-generation tool for polymerase chain reaction-high resolution melting assays, to detect mutations in children with sporadic isolated&nbsp; congenital heart diseases. A retrospective casecontrol study was conducted at the Jakaya Kikwete Cardiac Institute. The peripheral blood samples were&nbsp; collected, and DNA was extracted using the Quick-DNA Miniprep Kit. The primers were designed using Primer 3 software, validated using the program&nbsp; BLAST, and checked for hairpin and homo-hetero-dimerization using the IDT oligo analyzer. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-high-resolution&nbsp; melting assays for screening TBX5 gene mutations were done using a magnetic induction cycler. We found two (2) TBX5 mutations in exon 5, among&nbsp; patients with Atrial-Ventral Septal Defects (ASVD) and Atrial-Septal Defects (ASD) and none among controls. TBX5 exon 5 is a molecular hotspot for&nbsp; isolated congenital heart diseases.&nbsp;</p> Emmanuel Suluba James Masaganya Wenjia Liang Mwinyi Masala Erasto Mbugi Teddy Mselle Naizihijwa Majani Sulende Kubhoja Benezeth M. Mutayoba Liu Shuwei Copyright (c) 2022-12-08 2022-12-08 11 2 2240 2251 10.4314/aja.v11i2.14