Anatomy Journal of Africa <p class="style48"><em>Anatomy Journal<span class="apple-converted-space"> </span>of<span class="apple-converted-space"> </span>Africa</em><span class="apple-converted-space"><span> </span></span><span>is the Official Journal for the <strong>Association of Anatomical Societies of Africa</strong>. This journal has its editorial office based at the department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, and has biannual issues (January and July issues).</span></p><p class="style48"><span>We accept and publish a wide variety of papers including:<span class="apple-converted-space"> </span><em><br /> <em>- Applied anatomy - Clinical anatomy - Morphology,</em><span class="apple-converted-space"> </span><em>- Embryology - Anatomical techniques and Variant anatomy.</em></em></span></p><p class="style48">Other websites associated with this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a></p> en-US The copyright of this journal belongs to the <span lang="EN-GB">Association of Anatomical Societies of Africa.</span> (Prof. Julius Ogeng’o) (Kevin Ongeti) Tue, 12 May 2020 21:48:03 +0000 OJS 60 Morphometric parameters of clavicles among adult Black people in Tanzania <p>Morphological clavicular variation has been studied extensively by orthopaedic surgeons, anatomic and forensic experts to explain developmental,&nbsp; gender and age-related differences. The design of fixation devices for displaced clavicular fracture management depends largely on anatomic&nbsp; characteristics of clavicle. Eighty-one unpaired clavicles of unknown sex were studied, 42 clavicles were of right side and 39 clavicles of left side. All the clavicles were collected from adult cadavers which were dissected in Departments of Anatomy at Muhimbili and Herbert Kairuki Memorial&nbsp; Universities. The length of clavicle was measured by a vernier calliper; the middle point of this length was taken as the point where midclavicular circumference was measured with the help of a measuring thread and the angle of curvature of clavicle was measured by using protractors. The&nbsp; average lengths of the left and right clavicles were 15.23±1.12 cm and 15.43±1.01cm respectively. The average medial angle of curvature of left&nbsp; clavicle was 155.33° ± 4.39°and that of right clavicle was 153.40° ± 3.96°. The mean total angle of curvature of left clavicle was 293.54˚± 9.55°and the average total angle of curvature of right clavicle was 290.05±8.94°. The average midclavicular circumference of left clavicle was 3.88cm ± 0.33cm and&nbsp; that of right clavicle was 3.94cm±0.33cm. The right clavicle was longer than the left clavicle, the average medial angle of curvature of left clavicle was greater than medial angle of right clavicle, the average lateral angle of curvature of left clavicle was more than the average lateral angle of&nbsp; curvature of right clavicle and the mean of midclavicular circumference of right clavicle was greater than that of left clavicle.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Morphometric, clavicle, curvatures, circumference&nbsp; </p> A.G. Alexander, A.D. Russa Copyright (c) Tue, 12 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Morphometric study of the meningeal sheath of the oculo motor nerve in the latero-sellar lodge: Neuro surgical interest <p>The meningeal sheath of the oculomotor nerve is also known that the latero-sellar lodge. It has both dural and extra-dural components. This sheath&nbsp; contains vascular elements including the carotid and nervous siphon, the motor nerves of the eye to which are added the division branches V1 and V2 of the trigeminal nerve. The oculomotor nerve runs through this lodge wrapped in its meningeal sheath. The purpose of this study was to document the dimensions of the different segments of the nerve as it crosses the lodge. Eight pairs of lodges were the subject of this study. Dead bodies fixed with 10% formalin for two to three weeks underwent a craniotomy. After removal of the brain, nerve III and its meningeal envelope were dissected and exposed. The different segments of the nerve were measured in both sides. The entrance orifice of the porus of the oculomotor nerve III was located behind the anterior clinoid process to 7.2 mm (extreme from 3 to 13mm) on the right and to 7.40mm (extreme from 4 to 12) on the left. The meningeal cul-de-sac represented the intra-conical segment and was either 5.2mm long (extreme from 4 to 6.5mm) or short 3.25mm (extreme from 2 to 3.5mm). The supra-cavernous segment measured on the right 5.2 mm (extreme from 2 to 8 mm) and on the left 4.6 mm (extreme from 3 to 7 mm). The latero-sellar lodge, a complex and narrowed region is crossed by nervous elements each in its meningeal sheath. This deserves an approach by surgical microdissection.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Oculomotor nerves - meningeal cone - measurement – cadaver – latero-sellar lodge.</p> Fréjus Séry, Rodrigue Koffi Copyright (c) Tue, 12 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Morphological and Vascular Study Of The Posterior Lumbar Epidural Fat <p>Posterior lumbar epidural fat has been described by several authors in various fields: Anesthetic, Radiology and Neurochemistry. In this study, we tried to describe the position of this fat in the lumbar canal (L1-L5), its vascularization and drainage system. 8 Ivorian cadavers are used for the practice of dissection in the laboratory. The anterior abdominal region is chosen for the approach of the lumbar epidural region. The study investigated the situation, morphology and microcirculatory structure of fat at the lumbar level. The fatty clusters were embedded in fine vessels and were better vascularized and drained by veins of large caliber. In the vertebral canal, the fat was struck in the intervertebral foramina and was simply spread on the anterior surface of the ligamentum flavum. The fat as triangular shape with a vertebral base and a foamy summit it wanders in the cerebrospinal fluid. The lumbar epidural fat is better vascularized, and its venous drainage is made by large veins facing the intervertebral foramina embedded in areolar tissue traversed by nerve roots.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>: vertebral canal, fat, structure, vascularization.&nbsp; </p> Frejus Sery, Esperance Broalet, Herbert Koya, Arnauld Dido Copyright (c) Tue, 12 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Tooth occlusion pattern of the hausas in Zaria, Nigeria <p>The study was carried out to deduce the tooth occlusion pattern among the Hausas in Zaria, Nigeria. A total of 384 subjects made up of 184 males and 200 females within the ages of 20-49 years participated in this study. Data was collected by means of questionnaire. Results revealed that mild overbite type is the commonest (male = 33.6%, female = 32.6%) which was followed by edge to edge bite (male = 13.3%, female = 10.4%). The incidence of the severe overbite was observed more in males (3.4%) than females (2.1%). The incidence of negative overbite was observed more in females (2.9%) than males (1.8%). The results showed no significant gender difference (p≥0.05) in the tooth occlusion pattern. The tooth occlusion pattern of the Hausas in Zaria, Nigeria is such that some occlusion types are relatively more common in females than the male counterparts and vice versa. The mild overbite type of occlusion is the commonest among the Hausas in Zaria, Nigeria. The negative overbite is the least common tooth occlusion pattern among the Hausas in Zaria, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Nigeria; Occlusion; Pattern; Tooth; Zaria </p> Ese Anibor Copyright (c) Tue, 12 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Conventional and variant origin of the transverse cervical artery in a select kenyan population <p>Data from previous studies have highlighted on the use of transverse cervical artery (TCA) flaps as posterior neck musculocutaneous flaps in&nbsp; reconstructive surgeries. General preference of flap selection relies heavily on the neurovascular supply of the flap in question and even though known, the transverse cervical artery has been shown to vary among populations, therefore affecting its use as a potential flap. Additionally, variant points of origin of the trans-cervical artery have been shown to predispose to brachial plexus compression. Our data on the same, however, remains partly elucidated and therefore a study aimed at describing the conventional and variant origin of the TCA in a Kenyan population would aid in deciding on its use as musculocutaneous flaps and determining the possible prevalence of brachial plexus compression because of its variant origin. The origin of the transverse cervical artery was studied bilaterally in 26 adult Kenyan cadavers in the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. As regards their origin, the different types were photographed and grouped into five: Types I to V relative to its origin. The data collected was then analysed using SPSS version 21 and findings presented as percentages. The findings were presented in a bar graph and pie chart. The TCA was present in all the 26 cadavers studied. Type I origin of the TCA was the most common (71.15%) while type V was the least (1.92%). While type I origin occurred mostly on the left limbs, the other types were more prevalent on the right side. The significant variant origin of the TCA and its resultant aberrant course should be important considerations during the planning of posterior neck musculocutaneous flaps as well as in understanding brachial plexus compression associated with its variant origin.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>: Anatomy, Transverse cervical artery.</p> Jeremiah Munguti, Fiona Nyaanga, Vincent Kipkorir, Shane Bhupendra, Onyango Marita, Gagandeep Kaur, Thomas Amuti Copyright (c) Tue, 12 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Morphological study of patent foramen ovale in Sudanese population <p>The aim of this study is to establish anatomical reference regarding PFO among Sudanese as increasing evidence was found that PFO is culprit in paradoxical emboli events; this led to the reevaluation of this relatively important anomaly. We included 60 apparently normal hearts available in Dissection Rooms in five faculties of medicine in Sudan. The rate of PFO was 7 (11.7%) and the diameter was ranging between 5 mm and 21 mm, with average of 0.87 mm. We conclude that PFO is common among Sudanese and was seen in seven cadavers (11.7%).</p> Ahmed Mohammad Atiaallah Mohammad Kkair, Ali Yasen Yasen Mohamed Ahmed, Mutaz Ogeal Osman, Mawadda Farah Ismail, Khalid Elamin Awad Copyright (c) Tue, 12 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Roentgenographic analysis of lumbar lordotic dimensions among indigenes of Delta State <p>The spinal column of humans possesses strategically placed concave and convex curves which work in harmony to give an upright posture. The inwardly concave curvature in the lumbar region of the spine is known as the lordosis and it plays a very important role in the formation of the posture of humans. Analysis of the human lordosis is of great importance as it has been shown to be a major factor in the onset of low back pain, and is of great importance in spinal reconstructive surgery, through which some form of repair can be done to the spinal column that has undergone some form of alteration. The present study was carried out to analyse the lumbar lordotic dimensions among indigenes of Delta State. The aim of the study was to find out the average lordotic angle, vertebral body height and intervertebral disc height for the male and female population. The study was also aimed at finding the range for the normal lordotic angles as well as the correlations between these dimensions and the age of an individual. A regression equation was also formulated with which the lordotic angle of an individual can be estimated given the age of that individual. The sample size was 384 individuals (204 males and 180 females) with an age range of 20-60 years. The male population <br>had a mean angle of 59.33±2.45° and the females had a lower mean value of 53.33±2.61°. The study showed males had higher mean values for lumbar vertebra height and intervertebral disc height. A steady increase in the height of the lumbar vertebra and intervertebral disc from the first to the last was observed in this study. This study also showed that a weak negative correlation existed between the age of an individual and the&nbsp; lordotic angle and the vertebral height. Correlations between the age and intervertebral disc height showed a weak positive correlation. A regression formula was derived for estimating the lordotic angle of an individual given the age. This study will be of great importance to medical practitioners and forensic anthropologists in spinal reconstructive surgery and forensic human identification by gender and age.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Lumbar Spine. Lordosis, Lordotic Angle, Correlation, Regression.</p> Ugochukwuka Ojieh, Abimbola Oladunni Ebeye Copyright (c) Tue, 12 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Dermatoglyphic appraisal of multiple births women in Igbo-Ora and Ogbomosho, South west, Nigeria <p>The scientific study of epidermal ridges on the palms and toes is termed dermatoglyphics. Multiple births occur when more than one fetus results&nbsp; from a single pregnancy. This study is aimed at determining the relationship if any between multiple births and palmar flexion creases. Two&nbsp; hundred Igbo-Ora and one hundred Ogbomosho healthy and consenting adult female indigenes aged between 25-50 years were recruited and grouped into 4; group I consisted of multiple births women in Igbo-Ora; group II consisted of single births women in Igbo-Ora; group III consisted of multiple births women in Ogbomosho; and group IV consisted of single births women in Ogbomosho. A total of 600 palms (Igbo-Ora n=400; Ogbomosho n=200) comprising of both hands were used in the study. Palm prints samples were obtained by asking the participants to wash their hands, towel dry them, after which they were stained with stamp ink pad and prints made on A4 paper in duplicates. Palm print patterns of 105 (Igbo-Ora) and 50 (Ogbomosho) women with multiple births were compared with 95 (Igbo-Ora) and 50 (Ogbomosho) women with single births. The percentage number of primary, P and intersection, I of palmar creases with complete transverse creases, C (PIC) 300 bilaterally was significantly&nbsp; greater (p &lt; 0.005) in the hands of Igbo-Ora multiple births women (52.4 %) than their single births women (37.4%) while same trend was observed for Ogbomosho women although difference was statistically insignificant,(p &gt; 0.005). In both Igbo-Ora and Ogbomosho women, PIC 310 bilaterally was found to be significantly higher (p &lt; 0.05) in both hands of single births women than the multiple births women. Hence, dermatoglyphics can be said to have relationship with a woman’s tendency to giving birth to multiples.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Multiple births, dermatoglyphics, palmar flexion creases, Ogbomosho, Igbo-Ora </p> Kehinde T. Adenowo, Olugbenga O. Eweoya, Olugbemi T. Olaniyan, Abayomi Ajayi Copyright (c) Tue, 12 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The role of fluoride on eruption of mandibular molar of albino rats <p>Eruption of the tooth is a complex and highly regulated process which can be influenced by genetic, environmental and systemic factors. Fluoride is found naturally in water as well as in foods and dental products. The first mandibular molar is the first molar to erupt and it is essential for&nbsp; mastication of food. We studied the effect of fluoride on the eruption of the first mandibular molar in albino rats. Fluoride at different&nbsp; concentrations was added to the water of pregnant albino rats while sterile water without fluoride was given to the control pregnant dams. The pregnant dams were allowed to deliver, and the heads of their pups carefully decapitated, and mandibles dissected out on days 10, 12, 15 and 18 for assessment of eruption pattern of the first molar while also measuring the mandibular length and breadth. The mandibles were then processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining. On gross examination, some of the teeth developed intraosseously while others were located mucosally, pre-occlusally or occlusally. There was significant reduction in both the birth weight and mandibular length as the fluoride concentration increased compared to the control but a significant increment in the mandibular breadth between the experimental groups in comparison with the control group on day 15 (p value &lt;0.05). These findings suggest that high concentrations of fluoride could delay mandibular molars’ eruption and also cause low birth weight.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>: fluoride, mandibular molar, tooth eruption </p> Omowumi M. Femi-Akinlosotu, Olakayode O. Ogundoyin, Morenike A. Akintola Copyright (c) Tue, 12 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000