HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in two referral hospitals in Ethiopia
The aim of the study was to determine the magnitude of HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination (SAD) and its associated factors in healthcare settings. Primary data were collected from June to September 2014 from two referral hospitals located in north-west Ethiopia. The study used pre-test/post-test design with a non-equivalent control group using a quantitative approach. Healthcare professionals were divided into strata and then, using the stratified random sampling technique, the study participants were selected from each stratum. The median age of study respondents in the treatment group was 32.2 years with standard deviation (SD) of 7.74. The regressions of stigma for the pre-tests of the first hospital and second hospital participants’ knowledge about SAD-related issues and perceived risk of HIV infection were found to be significantly associated with stigma in the first hospital. In the first hospital, healthcare professionals who felt HIV risk of infection at different contact points with HIV-positive patients were more than 13 times more likely to present stigmatising attitudes towards the patients (OR = 13.46, p = 0.005). In the second hospital, only perceived risk of infection was significantly associated with stigma (p = 0.036). Interventions to lessen HIV and AIDS-related SAD in healthcare settings must focus on improving the knowledge, attitudes and practices of healthcare professionals as well as overcoming the institutional barriers existing in the healthcare settings through staff training and hospital strategy development.
Keywords: attitude, factors, health care professionals, infection