Activity of some Nile River aquatic macrophyte extracts against the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa
The anti-algal activity of five macrophyte extracts on the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa in Egypt was investigated in 2013. Extract activity varied according to plant type, extracting solvent and its concentration. The highest inhibitory activity was achieved with ethanol extract at a concentration of 80 mg l−1, followed by chloroformic extracts, at 60 mg l−1. Methanolic extracts of Eichhornia crassipes and Polygonum tomentosum inhibited growth of Microcystis aeruginosa at all concentrations. Acetonic extracts inhibited algal growth at 60 mg l−1, except for the extract of Ceratophyllum subdemersum, which showed stimulation of M. aeruginosa growth. Eichhornia crassipes ethanolic extract exerted the most powerful inhibition by more than five-fold, 570.17%, followed by those of P. tomentosum, Saccharum spontaneum, Ceratophyllum demersum and C. subdemersum, 559.48, 553.99, 544.11 and 366.51%, respectively. Phytochemical screening for the tested plant extracts revealed the presence of biologically active substances of different concentrations, with P. tomentosum having the highest polyphenols, 1.95% of dry weight.
Keywords: algal bloom control, allelopathy, phenolic compounds, toxic cyanobacteria