Metal accumulation in two contiguous eutrophic peri-urban lakes, Chivero and Manyame, Zimbabwe
Concentrations of aluminium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, nickel and zinc were determined in surface water, benthic sediments, and the gills, liver and stomach muscle tissues of Oreochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus in peri-urban lakes Chivero and Manyame, Zimbabwe. Five sites were sampled in each lake once per month in November 2015, February, May, August and November 2016. Pollution load index detected no metal contamination, whereas the geo-accumulation index reflected heavy to extreme sediment pollution, with Fe, Cd, Zn, Cr, Ni and Cu present in both lakes. Significant spatial temporal variations were detected for Al, Cr, Cu and Pb across sites within and between the two lakes. High Fe, Al and Cr concentrations in water and sediments in lakes Chivero and Manyame derive from geogenic background sources in addition to anthropogenic loads and intensity. Elevated concentrations of Al, Pb, Cu, Cd, Fe and Zn detected in gills, liver and stomach tissue of catfish corroborate concentrations in water and sediments, and pose the highest ecological and health risk for hydrobionts in lakes Chivero and Manyame. Contiguity of peri-urban lakes exposes them to similar threats, necessitating creative water management strategies, which ensure ecological continuity.
Keywords: bio-accumulation, ecological risk, hydrobionts, lentic systems, toxicodynamics